Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurement...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis

Authors:

Thomas B. van Hoof ,

Department of Palaeoecology, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Karsten A. Kaspers,

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Friederike Wagner,

Department of Palaeoecology, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Roderik S. W. van de Wal,

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Wolfram M. Kürschner,

Department of Palaeoecology, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Henk Visscher

Department of Palaeoecology, Laboratory of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Utrecht University, NL
X close

Abstract

Atmospheric CO2 reconstructions are currently available from direct measurements of air enclosures in Antarctic ice and, alternatively, from stomatal frequency analysis performed on fossil leaves. A period where both methods consistently provide evidence for natural CO2 changes is during the 13th century ad. The results of the two independent methods differ significantly in the amplitude of the estimated CO2 changes (10 ppmv ice versus 34 ppmv stomatal frequency). Here, we compare the stomatal frequency and ice core results by using a firn diffusion model in order to assess the potential influence of smoothing during enclosure on the temporal resolution as well as the amplitude of the CO2 changes. The seemingly large discrepancies between the amplitudes estimated by the contrasting methods diminish when the raw stomatal data are smoothed in an analogous way to the natural smoothing which occurs in the firn.

How to Cite: van Hoof, T.B., Kaspers, K.A., Wagner, F., van de Wal, R.S.W., Kürschner, W.M. and Visscher, H., 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 57(4), pp.351–355. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v57i4.16555
  Published on 01 Jan 2005
 Accepted on 22 Mar 2005            Submitted on 12 Nov 2004

References

  1. Anklin , M. , Bamola , J. M. , Schwander , J. , Stauffer , B. and Raynaud , D . 1995 . Processes affecting the CO2 concentrations measured in Greenland ice . Tellus 47B , 461 – 470 .  

  2. Barnola , J. M. , Anklin , M. , Porcheron , J. , Raynaud , D. , Schwander , J. and co-author 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus 47B, 264 – 272  

  3. Beerling , D. J. , Birks , H. H. and Woodward, El. 1995 . Rapid late-glacial atmospheric CO2 changes reconstructed from the leaf stomatal density of fossil leaves . J. Quatem. Sci . 10 , 379 – 384 .  

  4. Etheridge , D. M. , Steele , L. P. , Langenfels , R. L. , Francey , R. J. , Bamola , J. M. and co-author 1996. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and fim. J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 4115 – 4128 .  

  5. Indermühle , A. , Stocker , T. E , Joos , E , Fischer , H. , Smith , H. J. and co-authors 1999. Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature 398, 121 – 126.  

  6. Kaspers , K. A. , van de Wal , R. S. W. , de Gouw , J. A. , Hofstede , C. M. , van den Broeke , M. R. and co-authors 2004b. Analyses of fim gas samples from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica: Study of non-methane hydrocarbons and methylchlorine. J. Geophys. Res . 109 ( 2 ), D02307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003950 .  

  7. Kaspers , K. A. , van de Wal , R. S. W. , van den Broeke , M. R. , Schwander , J. , van Lipzig , N. P. M. and co-author 2004a. Model calculations of the age of fim air across the Antarctic continent. Atmos. Chem. Phys . 4 , 1365 – 1380 .  

  8. Kouwenberg , L. L. R. , McElwain , J. C. , Kürschner , W. M. , Wagner , E , Beerling , D. J. and co-authors 2003. Stomatal frequency adjustment of four conifer species to historical changes in atmospheric CO2. Am. J. Bot. 90, 610 – 619.  

  9. Kouwenberg , L. L. R. , Wagner , E , Kürschner , W. M. and Visscher , H . 2005 . Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the past millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles . Geology 33 , 33 – 36 .  

  10. Kürschner , W. M . 1997 . The anatomical diversity of recent and fossil leaves of the durmast oak (Quercus petraea Lieblein/Quercus pseu-docastanea Goeppert): implications for their use as biosensors of paleoatmospheric CO2 levels . Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol . 96 , 1 – 30 .  

  11. Lake , J. A. , Quick , W. P. , Beerling , D. J. and Woodward , E I . 2001 . Signals from mature to new leaves . Nature 411 , 154 .  

  12. McElwain , J. C. , Mayle , E E. and Beerling , D. J . 2002 . Stomatal evidence for a decline in the atmospheric CO2 concentration during the Younger Dryas stadial: a comparison with Antarctic ice core records. J. Quatem. Sc i . 17 , 21 – 29 .  

  13. Monnin , E. , Indermühle , A. , Dallenbach , A. , Flückinger , J. , Stauffer , B. and co-authors 2001. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the Last Glacial Termination. Science 291, 112 – 114.  

  14. Rundgren , M. and Beerling , D . 1999 . A Holocene CO2 record from the stomatal index of subfossil Salbc herbacea L. leaves from northern Sweden . The Holocene 9 , 509 – 513 .  

  15. Rundgren , M. and Bjorck , S . 2003 . Late-glacial and early Holocene variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration indicated by high-resolution stomatal index data . Earth Planet. Sci. Lett . 213 , 191 – 204  

  16. Schwander , J . 1996. Gas diffusion in fim. In: Chemical Exchange Between the Atmosphere and Polar Snow (eds E. W. Wolff, and R. C. Bales). Springer Verlag, Berlin, 527 – 539  

  17. Schwander , J. , Bamola , J. M. , Andrie , C. , Leuenberger , M. , Ludin , A. and co-authors 1993. The age of the air in the fim and ice at Summit, Greenland. J. Geophys. Res . 98, 2831 – 2838.  

  18. Siegenthaler , U. , Friedli , H. , Lotscher , H. , Moor , A. , Neftel , A. and co-authors 1988. Stable-isotope ratio and concentration of CO2 in air from polar ice core. Ann. Glaciol. 10, 151 – 156.  

  19. Spahni , R. , Schwander , J. , Flückiger , J. , Stauffer , B. , Chappel-laz , J. and co-author 2003. The attenuation of fast atmospheric CH4variations recorded in polar ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1571, https://doi.org/10.1129/2003GL017093 .  

  20. Stauffer , B. , Fischer , G. , Neftel , A. and Oeschger , H . 1985 . Increase of atmospheric methane recorded in Antarctic ice cores . Science 229 , 1386 – 1388 .  

  21. Stuiver , M. , Reimer , P. J. , Bard , E. , Beck , J. W. , Burr , G. S. and co-authors 1998. INTCAL98 radiocarbon age calibration, 24.000-0 cal. BP. Radiocarbon 40, 1041 – 1084.  

  22. Trudinger , C. M. , Rayner , P. J. , Enting , I. G. , Heimann , M. and Scholze , M . 2003 . Implications of ice core smoothing for inferring CO2 flux variability . J. Geophys. Res . 108 , 4492 .  

  23. van Hoof , T. B . 2004. Coupling between atmospheric CO2 and temperature during the onset of the Little Ice Age. LPP Contributions Series 18,1-127 (http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/2004-1214-121238/index.htm).  

  24. van Lipzig , N. P. M. , van Meijgaard , E. and Oerlemans , J . 2002 . The spatial and temporal variability of the surface mass balance in Antarctica results from a regional climate model . Int. J. Climatol . 22 , 1197 – 121 .  

  25. Wagner , E , Aaby , B. and Visscher , H . 2002. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8.200-years-BY. cooling event. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99 , 12011 – 12014.  

  26. Wagner , E , Below , R. , De Klerk , P. , Dilcher , D. L. , Joosten , H. J. H. and co-authors 1996. A natural experiment on plant acclimation: Life-time stomatal frequency response of an individual tree to annual atmospheric CO2 increase . Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93 , 11 705 – 11708 .  

  27. Wagner , E , Bohnke , S. J. P. , Dilcher , D. L. , Kürschner , W. M. , van Geel , B. and co-author 1999. Century-Scale Shifts in Early Holocene Atmospheric CO2 Concentration . Science 284 , 1971– 1973 .  

  28. Wagner , E , Dilcher , D. L. and Visscher , H . 2005 . Stomatal frequency responses in a hardwood swamp vegetation from Florida during 60 years continuous CO2increase . Am. J. Bol 92 ( 4 ), 162 – 168 .  

  29. Wagner , E , Kouwenberg , L. L. R. , van Hoof , T. B. and Visscher , H . 2004 . Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quatem . Sci. Re v . 23 , 1947 – 1954 .  

comments powered by Disqus