Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Long-term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Northwestern Italy: the role ...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Long-term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Northwestern Italy: the role of increasing Saharan dust deposition

Authors:

M. Rogora ,

CNR Institute of Ecosystem Study, Section of Hydrobiology and Ecology of Inland Waters, Largo Tonolli 50, I-28922 Verbania Pallanza, IT
X close

R. Mosello,

CNR Institute of Ecosystem Study, Section of Hydrobiology and Ecology of Inland Waters, Largo Tonolli 50, I-28922 Verbania Pallanza, IT
X close

A. Marchetto

CNR Institute of Ecosystem Study, Section of Hydrobiology and Ecology of Inland Waters, Largo Tonolli 50, I-28922 Verbania Pallanza, IT
X close

Abstract

The Lake Maggiore watershed is one of the areas most affected by acid deposition in Italy. Decreasing sulfate concentration and increasing pH values of precipitation have been observed in this area in the last 15–20 yr. Besides atmospheric deposition, an important factor controlling water acidification and recovery is the episodic deposition of Saharan calcareous dust, which contributes significantly to alkalinity and base cation deposition. At the sampling site at Pallanza, rain chemistry has been investigated since 1975. The frequency and chemical characteristics of alkaline events (pH > 5.6) and Saharan events in particular (distinguished by an exceptionally high calcium and alkalinity content and by the visible presence of red dust) were evaluated at this site. Saharan events, despite their small contribution to total annual precipitation (3–17%), carry a considerable fraction of the annual total calcium and bicarbonate deposition (up to 70 and 100% respectively). The frequency and intensity of alkaline events affect the acidity/alkalinity budget on an annual basis. Apart from the major effect of sulfate decline, the increasing pH of precipitation recorded at the study site since the 1980s might also be influenced by an increased occurrence and intensity of alkaline events. An increase in the export of Saharan dust from arid regions together with changes in the circulation pattern over the Mediterranean area has been hypothesized as the main causes of this trend.

How to Cite: Rogora, M., Mosello, R. and Marchetto, A., 2004. Long-term trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition in Northwestern Italy: the role of increasing Saharan dust deposition. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56(5), pp.426–434. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v56i5.16456
2
Views
  Published on 01 Jan 2004
 Accepted on 11 Mar 2004            Submitted on 21 Oct 2003

References

  1. Avila , A. and Alarcon , M . 1999 . Relationship between precipitation chemistry and meteorological situations at a rural site in NE Spain . Atmos. Environ . 33 , 1663 – 1677 .  

  2. Avila , A. , Alarcon , M. and Queralt , I . 1998 . The chemical composition of dust transported in red rainsits contribution to the biogeochemical cycle of a holm oak forest in Catalonia (Spain) . Atmos. Environ . 32 , 179 – 191 .  

  3. Avila , A. and Roca , E 1991 . Red rain as major contributors of nutrients and alkalinity to terrestrial ecosystems at Montseny (NE Spain) . Orsis 6 , 215 – 229 .  

  4. Avila , A. and Roca , E 2002 . Assessing decadal changes in rainwater alkalinity at a rural site in the Montseny Mountains (NE Spain) . Atmos. Environ . 36 , 2881 – 2890 .  

  5. Barbieri , A. and Pozzi , S . 2001 . Acidifying Deposition (Southern Switzerland). Environmental Documentation 134-Air. Swiss Agency for the Environment , Forests and Landscape (SAEFL) , Berne , Switzerland .  

  6. Barbieri , A. , Pozzi , S. , Pradella , C. , Veronesi , M. , Mosello , R. et al. 2003. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the Lake Maggiore watershed (Italy and Switzerland): contribution to water acidification and soil N saturation. Proceedings of the 18th meeting of the ICP Waters Programme Task Force in Moscow, October 7-9, 2002. ICP-WATERS Report 71/2003, NIVA, Oslo, Norway.  

  7. Bergametti , G. , Gomes , L. , Remoudaki , E. , Desbois , M. , Martin , D. et al. 1987. Present transport and deposition patterns of African dust in the North-Western Mediterranean. In: Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport (eds M. Teinen, and M. Sarnthein). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 227 – 252  

  8. Carollo , A. , Contardi , F. , Libera , V. and Rolla , A . 1985 . Hydroclimatic cartography of the Lake Maggiore drainage basin. Mem. 1st . Ital. Idro-bio 46 , 21 – 40 .  

  9. Carratala , A. and Bellot , J . 1998 . Neutralization of nitrate and sulphate in precipitation on the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Spain. Implications for acidification risk . Water Air Soil Pollut . 104 , 237 – 257 .  

  10. De Angelis , M. and Gaudichet , A . 1991 . Saharan dust deposition over Mont Blanc (French Alps) during the last 30 years . Tellus 43B , 61 – 75 .  

  11. Della Lucia , M. , Marchetto , A. , Mosello , R. and Tartari , G. A . 1996 . Studies on a chemical gradient of atmospheric deposition from the Po valley to the Alps . Water Air Soil PolluL 87 , 171 – 187 .  

  12. Delmas , V , Jones , H. G. , Tranter , M. and Delmas , R . 1996 . The weathering of aeolian dusts in alpine snow . Atmos. Environ . 30 , 1317 – 1325 .  

  13. Evans , C. D. , Cullen , J. M. , Alewell , C. , Kopaek , J. , Marchetto , A. , et al. 2001 . Recovery from acidification in European surface waters . HydroL Earth SysL Sc i . 5 , 283 – 297 .  

  14. Ferrier , R. C. , Jenkins , A. , Wright , R. E , Schöpp and Barth, H. 2001. Assessment of recovery of European surface waters from acidification, 1970-2000: introduction to the Special Issue. HydroL Earth Syst. Sci. 5, 274 – 282.  

  15. Franzén , L. G. , Mattsson , J. O. , Martensson , U. , Nihlen , T. and Rapp , A . 1994 . Yellow snow cover over the Alps and subarctic from dust storm in Africa . Ambio 23 , 233 – 235 .  

  16. Giorgi , E 1996. Climate modelling over the Mediterranean region: an overview. In: The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean (eds S. Guerzoni, and R. Chester). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dor-drecht, 1 – 14  

  17. Hirsch , R. M. , Slack , J. R. and Smith , R. A . 1982 . Techniques of trend analysis for monthly water quality analysis . Water Resource Res . 18 , 107 – 121 .  

  18. Le Bolloch , O. and Guerzoni , S . 1995 . Acid and alkaline deposition in precipitation in the Western Coast of Sardinia, Central Mediterranean (40°N, 8°E) . Water Air Soil PolluL 85 , 2155 – 2160 .  

  19. Loÿe-Pilot , M. D. , Martin , J. M. and Morelli , J . 1986 . Influence of Saha-ran dust on the rain acidity and atmospheric input to the Mediterranean . Nature 321 , 427 – 428 .  

  20. Marchetto , A. , Mosello , R. , Psenner , R. , Barbieri , A. , Bendetta , G. , et al. 1994 . Evaluation of the level of acidification and the critical loads for Alpine lakes . Ambio 23 , 150 – 154 .  

  21. Mosello , R. , Bianchi , M. , Brizzio , M. C. , Geiss , H. , Leyendecker , W. , et al. 1998 . AQUACON-MedBas Subproject No. 6. Acid rain analysis. Intercomparison 1/98. Joint Research Centre European Commission Report EUR 19015 EN , Joint Research Centre , Ispra , Italy .  

  22. Mosello , R. and Marchetto , A . 1996 . Chemistry of atmospheric wet deposition in Italy. Results from a five year study . Ambio 25 , 21 – 25 .  

  23. Mosello , R. , Marchetto , A. , Brizzio , M. C. , Rogora , M. and Tartan , G. A . 2000 . Results from the Italian participation in the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes (ICP Waters) . J. Limnol . 59 , 47 – 54 .  

  24. Mosello , R. , Marchetto , A. and Tartan , G. A . 1988 . Bulk and wet atmospheric deposition chemistry at Pallanza (N. Italy) . Water Air Soil PolluL 42 , 137 – 151 .  

  25. Moulin , C. , Lambert , C. E. , Dulac , F. and Dayan , U . 1997 . Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation . Nature 387 , 691 – 694 .  

  26. Prospero , J. M . 1995. Saharan dust transport to the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean: an overview. In: The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean (ed. S. Guerzoni, and R. Chester). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 133 – 151  

  27. Psenner , R . 1999 . Living in a dusty world: airborne dust as a key factor for alpine lakes . Water Air Soil PolluL 112 , 217 – 227 .  

  28. Rodà , F. , Bellot , J. , Avila , A. , Escarre , A. , Pinol , J. et al. 1992 . Saharan dust and the atmospheric inputs of elements and alkalinity to Mediter-ranean ecosystems . Water Air Soil PolluL 66 , 277 – 288 .  

  29. Rogora , M. , Marchetto , A. and Mosello , R . 2001 . Trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and surface waters in the Lago Maggiore watershed . HydroL Earth SysL Sc i . 5 , 379 – 390 .  

  30. Rogora , M. , Mosello , R. and Arisci , S . 2003 . The effect of climate warming on the hydrochemistry of alpine lakes . Water Air Soil Pollut . 148 , 347 – 361 .  

  31. Schuurkes , J. A. A. R . 1986 . Atmospheric ammonium sulphate deposition and its role in the acidification and nitrogen enrichment of poorly buffered aquatic systems . Experientia 42 , 351 – 357 .  

  32. Schuurkes , J. A. A. R. and Mosello , R . 1988 . The role of external ammonium inputs in freshwater acidification . Schweiz. Z. Hydrol . 50 , 71 – 85 .  

  33. Sen , P. K . 1968 . Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall's tau . J. Am. Statist. Assoc . 63 , 1379 – 1389 .  

  34. Skjelkvâle , B. L. , Stoddard , J. L. and Andersen , T . 2001 . Trends in surface water acidification in Europe and North America (1989-1998) . Water Air Soil Poll . 130 , 787 – 792 .  

  35. Tait , D. and Thaler , B . 2000 . Atmospheric deposition and lake chemistry trends at a high mountain site in the eastern Alps . J. LimnoL 59 , 61 – 71 .  

  36. Tartari , G. A. and Mosello , R . 1997. Metodologie analitiche e controlli di walla nel laboratorio chimico dell'Istituto Italian° di Idrobiologia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. Documenta 1st. Ital. Idrobiol. 60.  

  37. UN-ECE , 1996 . 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundaty Air Pollution and its Protocols . United Nations , Economic Commission for Europe , New York and Geneva .  

  38. Van Breemen , N. , Driscoll , C. T. and Mulder , J . 1984 . Acidic deposition and internal proton sources in acidification of soils and waters . Nature 307 , 599 – 604 .  

  39. Vestreng , V . 2001 . Emission Data Reported to UNECE/EMEP: Evaluation of the Spatial Distributions of Emissions . EMEP/MSC-W Note1/01, Norwegian Meterological Institute , Oslo , Norway .  

comments powered by Disqus