Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio data

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio data

Authors:

P. S. Bakwin ,

Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO, US
X close

K. J. Davis,

Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, US
X close

C. Yi,

Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, US
X close

S. C. Wofsy,

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, US
X close

J. W. Munger,

Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, US
X close

L. Haszpra,

Department for the Analysis of Atmospheric Environment, Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest, HU
X close

Z. Barcza

Department of Meteorology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, HU
X close

Abstract

We examine the atmospheric budget of CO2 at temperate continental sites in the Northern Hemisphere. On a monthly time scale both surface exchange and atmospheric transport are important in determining the rate of change of CO2 mixing ratio at these sites. Vertical differences between the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere over the continent are generally greater than large-scale zonal gradients such as the difference between the free troposphere over the continent and the marine boundary layer. Therefore, as a first approximation we parametrize atmospheric transport as a vertical exchange term related to the vertical gradient of CO2 and the mean vertical velocity from the NCEP Reanalysis model. Horizontal advection is assumed to be negligible in our simple analysis. We then calculate the net surface exchange of CO2 from CO2 mixing ratio measurements at four tower sites. The results provide estimates of the surface exchange that are representative of a regional scale (i.e. ~106 km2). Comparison with direct, local-scale (eddy covariance) measurements of net exchange with the ecosystems around the towers are reasonable after accounting for anthropogenic CO2 emissions within the larger area represented by the mixing ratio data. A network of tower sites and frequent aircraft vertical profiles, separated by several hundred kilometres, where CO2 is accurately measured would provide data to estimate horizontal and vertical advection and hence provide a means to derive net CO2 fluxes on a regional scale. At present CO2 mixing ratios are measured with sufficient accuracy relative to global reference gas standards at only a few continental sites. The results also confirm that flux measurements from carefully sited towers capture seasonal variations representative of large regions, and that the midday CO2 mixing ratios sampled in the atmospheric surface layer similarly capture regional and seasonal variability in the continental CO2 budget.

How to Cite: Bakwin, P.S., Davis, K.J., Yi, C., Wofsy, S.C., Munger, J.W., Haszpra, L. and Barcza, Z., 2004. Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from mixing ratio data. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 56(4), pp.301–311. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v56i4.16446
2
Views
  Published on 01 Jan 2004
 Accepted on 16 Mar 2004            Submitted on 24 Apr 2003

References

  1. Bakwin , P. S. , Tans , P. R , Hurst , D. F. and Zhao , C . 1998a . Measurements of carbon dioxide on very tall towers: results of the NOAA/CMDL program . Tellus 50B , 401 – 415 .  

  2. Bakwin , P. S. , Tans , P. P. White , J. W. C. and Andres , R. J . 1998b . Determination of the isotopic ( 13 0 12 c) discrimination by terrestrial biology from a global network of observations . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 12 , 555 – 562 .  

  3. Bakwin , P. S. , Zhao , C. , Ussler, W. DI , Tans , P. P. and Quesnell , E . 1995 . Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower . Tellus 47B , 535 – 549 .  

  4. Baldocchi , D. , Falge , E. , Gu , L. , Olson , R. , Hollinger , D. et al. 2001 . FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy flux densities . Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc . 82 , 2415 – 2434 .  

  5. Barford , C. C. , Wofsy , S. C. , Goulden , M. L. , Munger , J. W. , Pyle , E. H. et al. 2001 . Factors controlling long- and short-term sequestration of atmospheric CO2 in a mid-latitude forest . Science 294 , 1688 – 1691 .  

  6. Barr , A. G. and Betts , A. K . 1997 . Radiosonde boundary layer budgets above a boreal forest . J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 29 205-29 212 .  

  7. Battle , M. , Bender , M. , Tans , P. P. , White , J. W. C. , Ellis , J. T. et al. 2000 . Global carbon sinks and their variability, inferred from atmospheric 02 and 313C . Science 287 , 2467 – 2470 .  

  8. Bousquet , R , Peylin , R , Ciais , R , Le Quere , C. , Friedlingstein , P. et al. 2000 . Regional changes in carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980 . Science 290 , 1342 – 1346 .  

  9. Chou , W. W. , Wofsy , S. C. , Harriss , R. C. , Lin , J. C. , Gerbig , C. et al. 2002 . Net fluxes of CO2 in Amazonia derived from aircraft observations . J. Geophys. Res . 107 ( D22 ), 4614 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JDO01295 .  

  10. Ciais , R , Tans , P. P. and Trolier , M . 1995 . A large northern-hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 . Science 269 , 1098 – 1102 .  

  11. Conway , T. J. , Steele , L. P. and Novelli , P. C . 1993 . Correlations among atmospheric CO2, CH4 and CO in the Arctic, March 1989 . Atmos. Environ . 27A , 2881 – 2894 .  

  12. Conway , T. J. , Tans , P. P. , Waterman , L. S. , Thoning , K. W. , Kitzis , D. R. et al. 1994 . Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network . J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 22 831-22 856 .  

  13. Davis , K. J. , Bakwin , P. S. , Yi , C. , Berger , B. W. , Zhao , C. et al. 2003 . The annual cycles of CO2 and H20 exchange over a northern mixed forest as observed from a very tall tower . Global Change Biol . 9 , 1278 – 1293 .  

  14. Davis , K. J. , Yi , C. , Berger , B. W. , Kubesh , R. J. and Bakwin , P. S . 2000. Scalar budgets in the continental boundary layer. In: Proceed-ings of the 14th Symposium on Boundary Layer and Turbulence, 7-11 August, American Meteorological Society, Aspen, CO, 100 – 103  

  15. Fan , S.-M. , Gloor , M. , Mahlman , J. , Pacala , S. , Sarmiento , J. L. et al. 1998 . A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic CO2 data and models . Science 282 , 442 – 446 .  

  16. Gerbig , C. , Lin , J. C. , Wofsy , S. C. , Daube , B. C. , Andrews , A. E. et al. 2003 . Toward constraining regional-scale fluxes of CO2 with atmo-spheric observations over a continent: 2. Analysis of COBRA data using a receptor-oriented framework . J. Geophys. Res . 108 , 4757 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003770 .  

  17. GLOBALVIEW 1999. Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project-Carbon Dioxide, CD-ROM. NOAA/CMDL, Boulder, CO. (Also available on the Internet via anonymous FTP to ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov, Path: ccg/CO 2 /GLOBALVIEW).  

  18. Gloor , M. , Bakwin , P. , Tans , P. , Hurst , D. , Lock , L. et al. 2001 . What is the concentration footprint of a tall tower? J. Geophys. Res . 106 , 17 831-17 840 .  

  19. Gloor , M. , Fan , S. , Sarmiento , J. and Pacala , S . 2000 . Optimal sampling of the atmosphere for purpose of inverse modeling: a model study . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14 , 407 – 428 .  

  20. Goulden , M. L. , Munger , J. W. , Fan , S.-M. , Daube , B. C. and Wofsy , S. C . 1996a . Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy co-variance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy . Global Change Biol . 2 , 169 – 182 .  

  21. Goulden , M. L. , Munger , J. W. , Fan , S.-M. , Daube , B. C. and Wofsy , S. C . 1996b . Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: response to interannual climate variability . Science 271 , 1576 – 1578 .  

  22. Goulden , M. L. , Wofsy , S. C. , Harden , J. W. , Trumbore , S. E. , Crill , P. M. et al. 1998 . Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw . Science 279 , 214 – 217 .  

  23. Gurney , K. R. , Law , R. M. , Denning , A. S. , Rayner , P. J. , Baker , D. et al. 2002 . Towards robust regional estimates of CO2 sources and sinks using atmospheric transport models . Nature 415 , 626 – 630 .  

  24. Haszpra , L . 1999a . Measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a low elevation rural site in Central Europe . Idö jcircis 103 , 93 – 105 .  

  25. Haszpra , L . 1999b . On the representativeness of carbon dioxide measurements . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 26953-26 960 .  

  26. Haszpra , L. , Barcza , Z. , Bakwin , P. S. , Berger , B. W. , Davis , K. J. et al. 2001 . Measuring system for the long-term monitoring of bio-sphere/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide . J. Geophys. Res . 106 , 3057 – 3069 .  

  27. Helliker , B. , Berry , J. , Betts , A. , Davis , K. and Bakwin , P . 2003. Es-timates of ABL-scale net carbon dioxide flux in Central Wisconsin. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Un. 84 ( 46 ), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract B42B-01.  

  28. Houghton , R. A . 1999 . The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use 1850-1990 . Tellus 51B , 298 – 313 .  

  29. Hurwitz , M. D. , Ricciuto , D. M. , Davis , K. J. , Wang , W. , Yi , C. et al. 2004 . Advection of carbon dioxide in the presence of storm systems over a northern Wisconsin forest. J. Atmos. Sc i . 61 , 607 – 618 .  

  30. Kalnay , E. , Kanamitsu , M. , Kistler , R. , Collins , W. , Deaven , D. et al. 1996 . The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project . Bull. Am. Mete-orol. Soc . 77 , 437 – 471 .  

  31. Keeling , R. F. , Piper , S. C. and Heimann , M . 1996 . Global and hemi-spheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric 02 concen-tration . Nature 381 , 218 – 221 .  

  32. Leith , H . 1963 . The role of vegetation in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res . 68 , 3887 – 3898 .  

  33. Levin , I. , Graul , R. and Trivett , N. B. A . 1995 . Long-term observations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon isotopes at continental sites in Germany . Tellus 47B , 23 – 34 .  

  34. Litvak , M. , Miller , S. , Wofsy , S. C. and Goulden , M . 2003. Effect of stand age on whole ecosystem CO 2 exchange in the Canadian boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res . 108 https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000854 , 29 January 2003 .  

  35. Mackay , D. S. , Ahl , D. E. , Ewers , B. E. , Gower , S. T. , Burrows , S. N. et al. 2002 . Effects of aggregated classifications of forest composition on estimates of evapotranspiration in a northern Wisconsin forest . Global Change Biol . 8 , 1253 – 1266 .  

  36. Marland , G. , Boden , T. A. and Andres , R. J . 2002 . Global, regional and national fossil fuel CO2 emissions . In: Trends: a Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center , Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN .  

  37. Moody , J. L. , Munger , J. W. , Goldstein , A. H. , Jacob , D. J. and Wofsy , S. C . 1998 . Harvard Forest regional-scale air mass composition by Patterns in Atmospheric Transport History (PATH) . J. Geophys. Res . 103 , 13 181-13 194 .  

  38. Myneni , R. B. , Keeling , C. D. , Tucker , C. J. , Asrar , G. and Nemani , R. R . 1997 . Increased plant growth in northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991 . Nature 386 , 145 – 148 .  

  39. Pacala , S. W. , Hurtt , G. C. , Baker , D. , Peylin , P. , Houghton , R. A. et al. 2001 . Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink esti-mates . Science 292 , 2316 – 2320 .  

  40. Potosnak , M. J. , Wofsy , S. C. , Denning , A. S. , Conway , T. J. , Munger , J. W. et al. 1999 . Influence of biotic exchange and combustion sources on atmospheric CO2 concentrations in New England from observations on a forest flux tower . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 9561 – 9569 .  

  41. Randerson , J. T. , Field , C. B. , Fung , I. Y. and Tans , P. P . 1999 . Increases in early season ecosystem uptake explain recent changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 . Geophys. Res. Lett . 26 , 493 – 496 .  

  42. Rayner , P. J. , Enting , I. G. , Francey , R. J. and Langenfields , R . 1999 . Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, 31-3C and 02/N2 observations . Tellus 51B , 213 – 232 .  

  43. Rayner , P. J. , Enting , I. G. and Trudinger , C. M . 1996 . Optimizing the CO2 observing network for constraining sources and sinks . Tellus 48B , 433 – 444 .  

  44. Running , S. W. , Gower , S. T. , Bakwin , P. S. , Hibbard , K. A. , Baldocchi , D. D. et al. 1999 . A global terrestrial monitoring network integrating tower fluxes, flask sampling, ecosystem modeling and EOS satellite data . Remote Sensing Environ . 70 , 108 – 127 .  

  45. Stull , R. B . 1988 . An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology . Kluwer Academic Publishers , Dordrecht .  

  46. Tans , P. P. , Bakwin , P. S. and Guenther , D. W . 1996 . A feasible global carbon cycle observing system: a plan to decipher today's carbon cycle based on observations . Global Change Biol . 2 , 309 – 318 .  

  47. Tans , P. P. , Fung , I. Y. and Takahashi , T . 1990 . Observational con-straints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget . Science 247 , 1431 – 1438 .  

  48. Thoning , K. W. , Tans , P. P. and Komhyr , W. D . 1989 . Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observatory, 2, Analysis of the NOAA GMCC data, 1974-1985 . J. Geophys. Res . 94 , 8549 – 8565 .  

  49. Valentini , R. , Matteucci , G. , Dolman , A. J. , Schulze , E.-D. , Rebmann , C. et al. 2000 . Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests . Nature 404 , 861 – 865 .  

  50. Wofsy , S. C. , Goulden , M. L. , Munger , J. W. , Fan , S.-M. , Bakwin , P. S. et al. 1993 . Net exchange of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest . Science 260 , 1314 – 1317 .  

  51. Wofsy , S. C. and Harriss , R. C . 2002 . The North American Carbon Program (NACP) . Report to the Interagency Working Group of the US Global Change Research Program. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO , USA. http:/lwww.esig.ucaredu/nacp/  

  52. Worthy , D. E. J. , Levin , I. , Trivett , N. B. A. , Kuhlmann , A. J. , Hopper , J. F. et al. 1998 . Seven years of continuous methane observations at a remote boreal site in Ontario, Canada . J. Geophys. Res . 103 , 15995-16 007 .  

  53. Yi , C. , Davis , K. J. , Bakwin , P. S. and Berger , B. W . 2001 . Long-term observations of the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. J. Atmos. Sc i . 58 , 1288 – 1299 .  

  54. Zhao , C. L. , Tans , P. P. and Thoning , K. W . 1997 . A high precision manometric system for absolute calibrations of CO2 in dry air . J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 5885 – 5894 .  

comments powered by Disqus