Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2w) between Japan and the H...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands: pCO2w—SST relationship in the winter and summer

Authors:

Hisayuki Y. Inoue ,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052; Laboratory of Marine and Atmospheric Geochemistry, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, N10W5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, JP
X close

Masao Ishii,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, JP
X close

Hidekazu Matsueda,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, JP
X close

Takeshi Kawano,

Ocean Observation and Research Department, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, JP
X close

Akihiko Murata,

Ocean Observation and Research Department, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-0061, JP
X close

Yoshio Takasugi

Research Division, National Institute for Sea Training, Independent Administrative Institution, Yokohama Municipal Government Building No. 2, 5-57, Kitanakadori, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-8435, JP
X close

Abstract

On the basis of measurements of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface seawater (pCO2w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands in winter and summer, we examined the relationship between pCO2w and the sea surface temperature (SST) in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG). In winter, pCO2w correlated well with the SST (0.14–0.24% °C−1), suggesting a monotonous change in the carbonate system. However, in summer, five different pCO2w–SST relationships were found in the NPSG (including the Kuroshio Extension) due to changes in the relative contribution of ocean dynamics (upwelling, vertical mixing and advection), biological activity in the absence (very low level) of macro-nutrients and thermodynamics. The increase in pCO2w corresponding to a unit increase in the SST from January to July was low (<2.5% °C−1) west (leeward side) of the Hawaiian Islands (19–22°N, 158–168°W) and in the Kuroshio Extension (33–35°N, 140–165°E), and high (~3% °C−1) south of the Kuroshio Extension (25–30°N, 180–165°W) and the Hawaiian Islands (15–19°N, 157–162°W). This suggested that the drawdown of dissolved inorganic carbon was affected by the enhanced biological activity due to upwelling events associated with eddies and/or the transport of dissolved nutrients from gyre edges to the interior.

How to Cite: Inoue, H.Y., Ishii, M., Matsueda, H., Kawano, T., Murata, A. and Takasugi, Y., 2003. Distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water (pCO2w) between Japan and the Hawaiian Islands: pCO2w—SST relationship in the winter and summer. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 55(2), pp.456–465. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v55i2.16768
  Published on 01 Jan 2003
 Accepted on 3 Jul 2002            Submitted on 18 Feb 2002

References

  1. Bates , N. R. , Michaels , A. F. and Knap , A. H . 1996 . Seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic carbon dioxide species at the U.S. JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site . Deep-Sea Res. II 43 , 347 – 383 .  

  2. Bingham , F. M . 1992 . Formation and spreading of Subtropical Mode water in the North Pacific . J. Geophys. Res. C7 97 , 11 177-11 189 .  

  3. Copin-Montegut , C . 1989 . A new formula for the effect of temperature on the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater . Corrigendum. Marir Chem . 27 , 143 – 144 .  

  4. DOE 1994. Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide system in sea water; version 2. (ed. A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet) ORNL/CDIAC-74.  

  5. Emerson , S. , Mecking , S. and Abell , J . 2001 . The biologi-cal pump in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean: Nutrient sources, Redfield ratios, and recent changes . Global Bio-geochem. Cycles 15 , 535 – 554 .  

  6. Gordon , L. I. and Jones , L. B . 1973 . The effect of temperature on carbon dioxide partial pressure in sea water . Marine Chem . 1 , 317 – 322 .  

  7. Inoue H. Y. , Matsueda , H. , Ishii , M. , Fushimi , K. , Hirota , M. , Asanuma , I. and Takasugi , Y. 1995. Long-term trend of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters of the western North Pacific , 1984-1993 . Tellus 47B , 391 – 413.  

  8. Inoue , H. Y. , Ishii , M. , Matsueda , H. , Saito , S. , Midorilcawa , T. and Nemoto , K. 1999. MRI measurements of partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Pacific during 1968 to 1970: re-evaluation and comparison of data with those of 1980s and 1990s. Tellus 51B, 830 – 848.  

  9. Ishii , M. , Inoue , H. Y. , Matsueda , H. , Saito , S. , Fushimi , K. , Nemoto , K. , Yano , T. , Nagai , H. and Midorilcawa , T. 2001. Seasonal variation in total inorganic carbon and its con-trolling processes in surface waters of the western North Pacific subtropical gyre. Marine Chem., 75, 17 – 32.  

  10. Joyce , T. M. , Yasuda , I. , Hiroe , Y. , Komatsu , K. , Kawasaki , K. , and Bahr , F . 2001 . Mixing in the meandering Kuroshio Extension and the formation of North Pacific Intermediate Water . J. Geophys. Res . C 3 , 4397 – 4404 .  

  11. Karl , D. M. , Letelier , R. , Hebel , D. V. , Bird , D. F. , and Winn , C. D . 1997 . The role of nitrogen fixation in biogeochemical cycling in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean . Nature 388 , 230 – 234 .  

  12. Kawai , H . 1972 . Hydrography of the Kuroshio Extension . In Kuroshio: its physical aspects (eds. H. Stommel and K. Yoshida ). University of Tokyo Press , Tokyo , 235 – 352 .  

  13. Körtzinger , A. , Mintrop , L. , Wallance , D. W. R. , Johnson , K. M. , Neill , C. , Tilbrook , B. , Towler , P. , Inoue , H. Y , Ishii , M. , Shaffer , G. , Saavedra, R. E T., Ohotalci, E., Yamashita, E., Poisson, A., Brunet, C., Schauer, B., Goyet, C. and Eischeid, G. 2000. The international at-sea intercompari-son off CO2 systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Chem. 72, 171 – 192.  

  14. Landrum , L. L. , Gammon , R. H. , Feely , R. A. , Murphy , P. P. , Kelly , K. C. , Cosca , C. E. and Weiss , R. E 1996. North Pacific Ocean disequilibrium for spring through summer, 1985-1989. J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 28539 – 28555.  

  15. Lee , K. , Wanninkhof , R. , Takahashi , T. , Doney S. C. and Feely , R. A . 1998 . Low interannual variability in recent oceanic uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide . Nature 396 , 155 – 159 .  

  16. McGillicuddy Jr , D. J., Robinson, A. R., Siegel, D. A., Jannasch, H. W., Johnson, R., Dickey, T. D., McNeil, J., Michaels, A. F. and Knap, A. H. 1998. Influence of mesoscale eddies on new production in the Sargasso Sea. Nature 394, 263 – 266.  

  17. Metzl , N. , Poisson , A. , Louanchi , F. , Brunet , C. , Schauer , B. and Bres , B . 1995 . Spatio-temporal distributions of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the Indian and Antarctic Oceans. A first step . Tellus 47B , 56 – 69 .  

  18. Metzl , N. , Louanchi , F. and Poisson , A . 1998 . Seasonal and interannual variations of sea surface carbon dioxide in the subtropical Indian Ocean . Marine Chem . 60 , 131 – 146 .  

  19. Millero , F. J. , Lee , K. and Roche , M. 1998. Distribution of alkalinity in the surface waters of the major oceans. Marine Chem. 60, 111 – 130.  

  20. Poisson , A. , Metzl , N. , Brunet , C. , Schauer , B. , Bres , B. , Ruiz-Pino, D. and Louanchi, E 1993. Variability of sources and sinks of CO2 in the Western Indian and Southern Oceans during the year 1991. J. Geophys. Res . 98 , 22759 – 22778.  

  21. Sasaki , K. , Ono , T. , Tanaka , K. , Kawasaki , K. and Saito , H . 1998 . Variation of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface water from Kuroshio to Oyashio and the relation between environmental factors and the partial pressure at 144°E off Sanriku, northwestern North Pacific in May 1997 . J. Oceanogr . 54 , 593 – 603 .  

  22. Seki , M. P. , Polovina , J. J. , Brainnard , R. E. , Bidigare , R. R. , Leonard , C. L. and Foley , D. G. 2001. Biological enhancement at cyclonic eddies tracked with GOES ther-mal imagery in Hawaiian waters. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1583 – 1586.  

  23. Stephens , M. R , Samuels , G. , Olson , D. B. , Fine , R. A. and Takahashi , T. 1995. Sea-air flux of CO2 in the North Pacific using shipboard and satellite data. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 13571 – 13583.  

  24. Suga , T. and Hanawa , K . 1990 . The mixed-layer climatology in the northwestern part of the Pacific subtropical gyre and the formation area of Subtropical Mode Water . J. Marine Res . 48 , 543 – 566 .  

  25. Takahashi , T. , Feely , R. A. , Weiss , R. E , Wanninkhof , R. H. , Chipman , D. W. , Sutherland , S. C. and Takahashi , T . 1997 . Proc. Natl. Acad . Sci. USA 94 , 8292 – 8299 .  

  26. Takahashi , T. , Sutherland , S. C. , Sweeney , C. , Poisson , A. , Metzl , N. , Tilbrook , B., Bates, N., Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R. A., Sabine, C., Olafsson, J. and Nojiri, Y. 2002. Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects . Deep-Sea Res. II , 49 , 1601– 1622 .  

  27. Tans , P. P. , Fung , I. Y. and Takahashi , T. 1990. Observational constrains on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Science 247, 1431 – 1438.  

  28. Watai , T. , Harada , K. , Gotoh , K. , Murayama , S. and Nakazawa , T . 1999 . Latitudinal distribution of CO2 fu-gacity along 175°E in the North Pacific in 1991-1996 . J. Oceanogr . 55 , 655 – 665 .  

  29. Weiss , R. F. , Jhanke , R. A. and Keeling , C. D . 1982 . Seasonal effects of temperature and salinity on the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater . Nature 300 , 511 – 513 .  

  30. Williams , R. G. and Follows , M. J . 1998. The Elcman transfer of nutrients and maintenance of new production over the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. 145, 461 – 489.  

  31. Winn , C. D. , Mackenzie , E T. , Carrillo , C. J. , Sabine , C. L. and Karl , D. M . 1994 . Air—sea carbon dioxide exchange in the North Pacific subtropical gyre: implications for the global carbon budget . Global Biogeochem. Cycles , 8 , 157 – 163 .  

  32. Winn , C. D. , Li , Y.-H. , Mackenzie , F. T. and Karl , D. M . 1998 . Rising surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site . Marine Chem . 60 , 33 – 47 .  

  33. Xie , S.-P. , Liu , W. T. , Liu , Q. and Nonalca , M . 2001 . Far-reaching effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Pacific Ocean-atmosphere system . Science 292 , 2057 – 2060 .  

  34. Yoshinari , H. , Yasuda , I. , Ito , S. , Firing , E. , Matsuo , Y. , Katoh, 0. and Shimizu, Y. 2001. Meridional transport of the North Pacific Intermediate Water in the Kuroshio-Oyashio interfrontal zone. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3445 – 3448.  

comments powered by Disqus