Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Modelling the continental effect of oxygen isotopes over Eurasia

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Modelling the continental effect of oxygen isotopes over Eurasia

Authors:

Matthias Cuntz ,

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), UMR CEA-CNRS 1572, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, FR; Institut für Umweltphysik (UHEI-IUP), Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, DE
X close

Philippe Ciais,

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), UMR CEA-CNRS 1572, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, FR
X close

Georg Hoffmann

Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE), UMR CEA-CNRS 1572, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, FR
X close

Abstract

δ18O in CO2 attracts attention for its ability to decipher the gross fluxes of terrestrial CO2 exchange. This capacity can only be exploited if one knows the impact of the biology and the water isotope cycle on the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2. To study the processes, we built an integrated global model of δ18O in atmospheric CO2 that calculates 18O in the water cycle pools, the CO2 and the inherent δ18O-CO2 fluxes and transports these in the atmosphere. Within the framework of the European Project EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX, we investigated the 18O processes on the continent of Eurasia north of 40 °N. We show that there is a large impoverishment in the water isotopic composition of rain in the continental interior but this is significantly reduced during the growing season. We validated the model directly by comparing it to Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measurements from eddy-flux towers and indirectly by comparing it to atmospheric measurements of CO2 and δ18O-CO2 at 3000 m a.s.l. The model reproduces well the seasonal cycle of CO2 and the phase for δ18O-CO2 but it underestimates the amplitude of that species. Our model further predicts a large diurnal rectifier effect that is different in CO2 than in δ18O-CO2 in eastern Siberia due to very low or even negative leaf discrimination. We analyse the longitudinal gradient in leaf discrimination which reflects primarily the gradient in leaf water isotopic composition. The leaf water δ18O-H2O gradient is itself determined 25% by the meridional gradient in source water and 75% by the change of relative humidity with longitude.

How to Cite: Cuntz, M., Ciais, P. and Hoffmann, G., 2002. Modelling the continental effect of oxygen isotopes over Eurasia. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(5), pp.895–909. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v54i5.16738
  Published on 01 Jan 2002
 Accepted on 22 Apr 2002            Submitted on 9 Jul 2001

References

  1. Aizen , E. M. , Aizen , V. B. , Melack , J. M. , Nakamura , T. and Ohta , T . 2001 . Precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns at mid-latitudes of Asia. Int. J. Climatol . 21 , 535 – 556 .  

  2. Allison , C. E. Francey , R., J. and Meijer , H. A. 1995 . Recommendations for the reporting of stable isotope mea-surements of carbon and oxygen in CO2 gas. In: References and intercomparison materials for stable isotopes of light elements, proceedings of a consultant Meeting held in Vienna, 1-3 December 1993, IAEA-TECDOC-825 . Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 155 - 162 .  

  3. Arpe , K. , Bengtsson , L. , Diimenil , L. and Roeckner , E . 1994 . The hydrological cycle in the ECHAM3 simulations of the atmospheric circulation. In: Global precipitation and climate change (eds. M. Desbois and F. Desalmand). Springer-Verlag , New York , 361 – 377 .  

  4. Baertschi , P . 1976 . Absolute 180 content of Standard Mean Ocean Water. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett . 31 , 341 – 344 .  

  5. Bousquet , P. , Peylin , P. , Ciais , R , Friedlingstein , P. and Tans , P. P . 2000 . Regional Changes in Carbon dioxide fluxes of land and oceans since 1980. Science 290 , 1342 – 1346 .  

  6. Brenninlcmeijer , C. A. M. , Kraft , P. and Mook , W. G . 1983 . Oxygen isotope fractionation between CO2 and H20. Iso-tope Geosci . 1 , 181 – 190 .  

  7. Chevillard , A. , Karstens , U. , Ciais , P. , Lafont , S. and Heimann , M . 2002 . Simulation of atmospheric CO2 over Europe and Siberia using the regional scale model REMO. Tellus 54B , this issue.  

  8. Ciais , P. , Tans , P. R , Trolier , M. , White , J. W. C. and Francey , R. J . 1995 . A large northern hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science 269 , 1098 – 1102 .  

  9. Ciais , P. , Denning , S. , Tans , P. R , Berry , J. , Randall , D. A. , Collatz , G. J. , Sellers , P. J. , White , J. W. C. , Trolier , M. , Mejier , H. A. J. , Francey , R. J. , Monfray , P. and Heimann , M . 1997a . A three-dimensional synthesis of 3180 in atmo-spheric CO2: 1. Surface fluxes./. Geophys. Res . 102 , D5, 5857 - 5872 .  

  10. Ciais , P. , Tans , P. P. , Denning , S. , Francey , R. J. , Trolier , M. , Mejier , H. A. J. , White , J. W. C. , Berry , J. , Randall , D. A. , Collatz , G. J. , Sellers , P. J. , Monfray , P. and Heimann , M . 1997b . A three-dimensional synthesis of 3180 in at-mospheric CO2: 1. Simulations with the TM2 transport model. J. Geophys. Res . 102 , D5, 5873 - 5883 .  

  11. Ciais , P. , Peylin , P. and Bousquet , P . 2000 . Regional bio-spheric carbon fluxes as inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Ecol. Appl . 10 , 1574 – 1589 .  

  12. Dansgaard , W . 1964 . Stable isotopes in precipitation. Tellus 16 , 436 – 468 .  

  13. Denning , A. S. , Fung , I. Y. and Randall , D. A . 1995 . Latitudi-nal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota. Nature 376 , 240 – 243 .  

  14. Denning , A. S. , Randall , D. A. , Collatz , G. J. and Sellers , P. J . 1996 . Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model, Part 2: Simulated CO2 concentrations. Tellus 48B , 543 – 567 .  

  15. Fan , S. , Gloor , M. , Mahlman , J. , Pacala , J. , Sarmiento , J. , Takahashi , T. and Tans , P. P. 1998 . Atmospheric and oceanic CO2 data and models imply a large terrestrial car-bon sink in North America. Science 282 ,442-446.  

  16. Farquhar , G. D. , von Caemmener , S. and Berry , J. A. 1980 . A Biochemical model of photosynthesis CO2 fixation in leaves of C3 species. Planta 149 , 78 - 90 .  

  17. Farquhar , G. D. , Lloyd , J. , Taylor , J. A. , Flanagan , L. B. , Syvertson , J. P. , Hubick , K. T. , Wong , S. C. and Ehleringer, J. R. 1993. Vegetation effects on the isotope composition of oxygen in atmospheric CO2. Nature 363 ,439-443.  

  18. GLOBALVIEW-CO2. 2000 . Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project-Carbon Dioxide . CD-ROM, NOAA/CMDL, Boulder, Colorado. Also available on In-ternet via anonymous FTP to ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov, Path: ccg/CO2/GLOBALVIEW.  

  19. Granier , A . 2002 . Sarrebourg, France, The Euroflux data set 2000. In: Carbon, water and energy exchanges of european forests (ed. R. Valentini). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg (in press).  

  20. Heimann , M . 1995 . The global atmospheric tracer model TM2 . Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Hamburg , Germany .  

  21. Hoffmann , G. , Werner , M. and Heimann , M . 1998 . Water isotopes module of the ECHAM atmospheric general cir-culation model: a study on timescales from days to several years. J. Geophys. Res . 103 , D14, 16871 - 16896 .  

  22. IAEA/WMO , A.A.A . 2001 . Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation. The GNIP Database. Accessible at: http : //isohis.iaea.org .  

  23. Jouzel , J. , Russell , G. L. , Suozzo , R. J. , Koster , R. D. , White , J. W. C. and Broecker, W. S. 1987. Simulations of the MO and H2180 atmospheric cycles using the NASA GISS gen-eral circulation model: the seasonal cycle for present-day conditions. J. Geophys. Res ., 92 , 14739 - 14760 .  

  24. Kjellstriim , E. , Holmen , K. , Eneroth , K. and Engardt , M . 2002 . Summertime Siberian CO2 simulations with the regional transport model MATCH: a feasibility study of carbon uptake calculations from EUROSM data. Tellus , 54B , this issue.  

  25. Knorr , W. and Heimann , M . 2001a . Uncertainties in global terrestrial biosphere modeling, 1. A comprehensive sen-sitivity analysis with a new photosynthesis and energy balance scheme. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15 , 207 – 225 .  

  26. Knorr , W. and Heimann , M . 2001b. Uncertainties in global terrestrial biosphere modeling, 2. Global constraints for a process-based vegetation model. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 15 , 227 - 246 .  

  27. Levin , I. , Ciais , P. , Gloor , M. , Langenfelds , R. , Ramonet , M. , Sidorov , K. , Schmidt , M. , Schulze , E.-D. , Shibistova , O. , Tschebakova , N. , Vygodskaya , N. N. and Lloyd , J. 2002 . Three years of trace gas observations over the EURO-Siberian domain derived from aircraft sampling-a con-certed action. Tellus 54B , this issue.  

  28. Lindroth , A . 2002 . Flalcaliden, Sweden, The Euroflux data set 2000. In: Carbon, water and energy exchanges of european forests (ed. R. Valentini). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg (in press).  

  29. Lloyd , J. , Langenfelds , R. , Francey , R. J. , Gloor , M. , Tchebokova , N. H. and coauthors 2002 . A trace gas climatology above Zotino, Central Siberia. Tellus 54B , this issue.  

  30. Majoube , M . 1971 . Fractionnement en oxygene-18 et en deu-terium entre l'eau et sa vapeur. J. Chim. Phys . 58 , 1423 – 1436 .  

  31. Mills , G. A. and Urey , H. C . 1940 . The kinetics of iso-topic exchange between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, carbonate ion and water. J. Am. Chem. Soc . 62 , 1019 – 1026 .  

  32. Milyukova , I. M. , Kolle , 0. E. , Varlagin , A. B. , Vygodskaya , N. N. , Schulze , E.-D. and Lloyd , J. 2002 . Carbon balance of a southern taiga spruce stand in European Russia. Tellus 54B , this issue.  

  33. Modellbetreuungsgruppe. 1994 . The ECHAM3 atmospheric general circulation model . Deutsches Klimarechenzen-trum, Hamburg , Germany .  

  34. Peylin , P . 1999 . The composition of 180 in atmospheric CO2: new tracer to estimate global photosynthesis. Dissertation. L'Universite Paris VI, Paris , France (in French ).  

  35. Peylin , R , Ciais , P. , Denning , A. S. , Tans , P. R , Berry , J. A. and White , J. W. C . 1999 . A three-dimensional study of 3180 in atmospheric CO2: contribution of different land ecosystems. Tellus 51B , 642 – 667 .  

  36. Prentice , I. C. , Farquhar , G. D. , Fasham , M. J. R. , Goulden , M. L. , Heimann , M. , Jaramillo , V. J. , Kheshgi , H. S. , Le Quere , C. , Scholes , R. J. and Wallace , D. W. R . 2001 . Chapter 3: The carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2, In: Third Assessment Report of Climate Change (eds. J. T. Houghton and D. Yihui). Cambridge University Press , New York. Report of the International Panel on Climate Change .  

  37. Ramonet , M. , Ciais , P. , Nepomniachii , I. , Sidorov , K. , Lloyd , J. , Neubert , R. , Picard , D. , Kazan , V. , Biraud , S ., Kolle , O. and Schulze , E.-D. 2002 . Three years of aircraft CO2 and isotope measurements over Fyodorovskoye in European Russia. Tellus 54B, this issue.  

  38. Rasch , P. J. and Williamson , D. L . 1990 . Computational as-pects of moisture transport in global models of the atmo-sphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc . 116 , 1071 – 1090 .  

  39. Rayner , P. J. , Enting , I. G. , Francey , R. J. and Langenfelds , R . 1999 . Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmo-spheric CO2, '3C and 02/N2 observations. Tellus 51B , 213 – 232 .  

  40. Roeckner , E. , Arpe , K. , Bengtsson , L. , Brinkop , S. , Diimenil , L. , Esch , M. , Kirk , E. , Ponater , M. , Rockel , B. , Sausen , R. , Schlese , U. , Schubert , S. and Windelband , M . 1992 . Simulation of the present-day climate with the ECHAM model: impact of model physics and resolution. MPI-Report 93 . Max-Planck Inst. fiir Meteorol., Hamburg, Germany.  

  41. Schimel , D. , Alves , D. , Enting , I. G. , Heimann , M. , Joos , F. , Raynaud , D. , Wigley , T. M. L. , Prather , M. , Derwent , R. , Ehhalt , D. , Fraser , P. , Sabhueza , E. , Thou , X. , Jonas , P. , Charlson , R. , Rohde , H. , Sadasivan , S. , Shine , K. P. , Fouquart , Y. , Ramaswamy , V. , Solomon , S ., Srinivasan J. , Albritton , D. , Derwnet , R. , Isaksen , I. , Lal , M. and Wuebbles , D. 1996 . Chapter 2: Radiative Forcing of Cli-mate Change. In: Climate change 1995, the science of climate change (eds. J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callender, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Report of the In-ternational Panel on Climate Change.  

  42. Sellers , P. J. , Randall , D. A. , Collatz , G. J. , Berry , J. A. , Field , C. B. , Dazlich , D. A. , Zhang , C. and Collelo , G. D . 1996a . A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCM, Part I. Model formulation. J. Climate 9 , 676 – 705 .  

  43. Sellers , P. J. , Los , S. O. , Tucker , C. J. , Justice , C. O. , Dazlich , D. A. , Collatz , G. J. and Randall , D. A. 1996b . A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmo-spheric GCM, Part II. The generation of global fields of terrestrial biospherical parameters from satellite data. J. Climate 9 , 706 - 737 .  

  44. Stephens , B. B. , Wofsy , S. C. , Keeling , R. F. , Tans , P. P. and Potosnalc , M. J . 1999 . The CO2 budget and rectifi-cation airborne study: Strategies for measuring rectifiers and regional fluxes. In: Inverse methods in global bio-geochemical cycles (eds. P. Kasibhatla et al). Geophysical Monograph Series 114 . American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 311 - 324 .  

  45. Taylor , J. A . 1998 . Atmospheric mixing and the CO2 seasonal cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett . 25 , 4173 – 4176 .  

  46. Tchebakova , N. M ., Kolle , O. , Zolotoulchine , D. , Arneth , A. , Styles , J. , Vygodskaya , N. N. , Schulze , E.-D. and Lloyd , J. 2002 . Inter-annual and seasonal variations of energy and water vapour fluxes above a Pinus sylvestris forest in the Siberian middle taiga. Tellus 54B , this issue.  

  47. Vesala , T . 2002 . Hyytiald, Finland, The Euroflux data set 2000. In: Carbon, water and energy exchanges of euro-peanforests (ed. R. Valentini). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg (in press).  

  48. Werner , M . 2000 . Spatial and temporal variability of water isotopes in polar precipitation . Dissertation, Universität Hamburg , Germany (in German ).  

  49. Wilson , M. F. and Henderson-Sellers , A . 1985 . A global archive of land cover and soils data for use in general cir-culation models. J. Climate 5 , 119 – 143 .  

comments powered by Disqus