Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Gaseous HCl at a remote tropical continental site

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Research Notes

Gaseous HCl at a remote tropical continental site

Authors:

Eugenio Sanhueza ,

IVIC, Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory, VE
X close

Angel Garaboto

IVIC, Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory, VE
X close

Abstract

Hydrochloric acid was measured in Parupa (5°41′N; 61°33′W), Canaima National Park, a pristine region located in the southern part of Venezuela, during January and September 2000. During both periods the HCl concentration was quite variable, with relatively higher levels during September and an overall median value of 37 pptv. An analysis of possible sources suggests that the photo-oxidation of chlorocarbons should be a significant source of HCl at the Parupa site.

How to Cite: Sanhueza, E. and Garaboto, A., 2002. Gaseous HCl at a remote tropical continental site. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(4), pp.412–415. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v54i4.16675
  Published on 01 Jan 2002
 Accepted on 18 Jun 2002            Submitted on 20 Aug 2001

References

  1. Atkinson , R . 1986 . Kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reactions of the hydroxyl radical with organic compounds under atmospheric conditions. Chem. Re v . 86 , 69 – 201 .  

  2. Ayers , G. P. , Gillett , R. W. , Cainey , J. M. and Dick , A. L . 1999 . Chlorine and bromine loss from sea-salt particle in southern ocean air. J. Atmos. Chem . 33 , 299 – 319 .  

  3. Class , Th. and Ballschmiter , K . 1987 . Global baseline pollu-tion studies, X. Atmospheric halocarbons: global budget estimations for tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane,hexachloroethaneandhexachloro-butadiene. Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem . 327 , 198 – 204 .  

  4. Cofer , W. R. , Colling , V. G. and Talbot , R. W . 1985 . Im-proved aqueous scrubber for collection of soluble atmo-spheric trace gases. Environ. Sci. Technol . 19 , 557 – 560 .  

  5. Crutzen , P. J . 1996 . My life with 03, NOR, and other YZOR compounds (Nobel Lecture). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl . 35 , 1578 – 1777 .  

  6. Crutzen , P. J. , Lelieveld , J. and Briihl , C . 1994 . Oxidation processes in the atmosphere and the role of human ac-tivities: Observations and model results. In: Enviromental oxidants (eds. J. 0. Nriaguy and M. S. Simmons). J. Wiley , New York , 63 – 93 .  

  7. Erickson DI, D. J. , Seuzaret , C. , Keene , W. C. and Gong , S. L. 1999 . A general circulation model based calculation of HC1 and C1NO2 production from sea salt dechlorination: Reactive chlorine emissions inventory. J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 8347 - 8372 .  

  8. Graedel , T. E. and Keene , W. C . 1995 . Tropospheric budget of reactive chlorine. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9 , 47 – 77 .  

  9. Keene , W. C. , Khalil , M. A. K. , Erickson , D. J. et al . 1999 . Composite global emissions of reactive chlorine from anthopogenic and natural sources: Reactive chlo-rine emissions inventory. J. Geophys. Res . 104D , 8429 – 8440 .  

  10. Holzinger , R. , Kleiss , B. , Donoso , L. and Sanhueza , E . 2001 . Aromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban, rural and remote sites in Venezuela. Atmos. Environ . 35 , 4917 – 4927 .  

  11. Khalil , M. A. K. and Rasmussen , R. A . 1999a . Atmospheric methyl chloride. Atmos. Environ . 33 , 1305 – 1321 .  

  12. Khalil , M. A. K. and Rasmussen , R. A . 1999b . Atmospheric chloroform. Atmos. Environ . 33 , 1151 – 1158 .  

  13. Kindler , T. P. , Chameides , W. L. , Wine , PH. , Cunnold , D. M. , Alyea , E N. and Franklin , J. A . 1995 . The fate of atmop-sheric phosgene and the stratospheric chlorine loadings of its parent compounds: CC14, C2C14, C2HC13, CH3CC13, and CHC13. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 1235 – 1251 .  

  14. Kurylo , M. J. and Rodriguez , J. M . 1999 . Short-lived ozone-related compounds, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone De-pletion: 1998, WMO/UNEP, WMO Report No . 44 , 2.1-2.56.  

  15. Sanhueza , E . 2000 . Oxidación fotoquimica de hidrocarburos clorados: una fuente importante de HC1 en las lluvias trop-icales remotas. Interciencia 25 , 186 – 190 .  

  16. Sanhueza , E . 2001 . Hydrochloric acid from chlorocarbons: a significant source of background rain acidity. Tellus 53B , 122 – 132 .  

  17. Sanhueza , E. , Fraser , P. and Zander , R . 1995 . Source gases: trends and budgets. In: Scientific assessment of ozone de-pletion: 1994 . WMO/UNEP, WMO Report No. 37, 2.1-2.38.  

  18. Sanhueza , E. , Figueroa , L. and Santana , M . 1996 . Atmo-spheric formic and acetic acids in Venezuela. Atmos. Env-iron . 30 , 1861 – 1873 .  

  19. Sanhueza , E. , Crutzen , P. J. and Femández , E . 1999 . Pro-duction of boundary layer ozone from tropical savannah biomass burning emissions. Atmos. Environ . 33 , 4969 – 4975 .  

  20. Sanhueza , E. , Fernandez , E. , Donoso , L. and Romero , J . 2000 . Boundary layer ozone in the tropical America northern hemisphere region./. Atmos. Chem . 35 , 249 – 272 .  

  21. Wiedmann , T. O. , Guethner , B. , Class , T. J. and Ballschmiter , K. 1994 . Global distribution of tetrachloroethene in the troposphere: Measurements and modeling. Environ. Sci. Technol . 28 , 2321 - 2329 .  

comments powered by Disqus