Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Latitudinal distribution of radon-222 flux from continents

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Latitudinal distribution of radon-222 flux from continents

Authors:

F. Conen ,

Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, GB
X close

L. B. Robertson

Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, GB
X close

Abstract

Global atmospheric transport models are frequently tested by using 222Rn as a tracer. Generally this tracer is assumed to be emitted at a uniform rate (1 atom cm−2 s−1) from all ice-free land surfaces. The analysis of published data suggests a strong decrease from 30°N northwards to 0.2 atom cm−2 s−1 at 70°N. This could be a result of increasing water tables and proportions of organic soils as indicated by larger proportions of wetlands in northern latitudes.

How to Cite: Conen, F. and Robertson, L.B., 2002. Latitudinal distribution of radon-222 flux from continents. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 54(2), pp.127–133. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v54i2.16653
  Published on 01 Jan 2002
 Accepted on 6 Nov 2001            Submitted on 13 Aug 2001

References

  1. Anderson , R. V. and Larson , R. E . 1974 . Atmospheric electricity and radon profiles over a closed basin and the open ocean. J. Geophys. Res ., 79 , 3432 – 3435 .  

  2. Cosma , C. , Ristoiu , D. , Poffijn , A. and Meesen , G. 1996 . Radon in various environmental samples in the Hercu-lane Spa, Cerna Valley, Romania. Environ. Int . 22 (Suppl. 1), S383—S388.  

  3. Dentener , F. , Feichter , J. and Jeuken , A . 1999 . Simulation of the transport of 222Rn using on-line and off-line global models at different horizontal resolutions: a detailed comparison with measurements.  

  4. Don , H. , Kromer , B. , Levin , I. , Mtinnich , K.O. and Volpp , H.-J. 1983. CO2 and radon 222 as tracers for atmospheric transport. J. Geophys. Res . 88 , 1309 - 1313 .  

  5. Don , H.and Mfinnich , K. O. 1990. 222Rn flux and soil air concentration profiles in West Germany. Soil 222Rn as a tracer for gas transport in the unsaturated soil zone. Tellus 42B , 20 - 28 .  

  6. Duerias , C. , Fernández , M. C. , Carretero , J. , Liger , E. and Perez , M . 1997 . Release of 222Rn from some soils. Ann. Geophys . 15 , 124 – 133 .  

  7. Genthon , C. and Armengaud , A . 1995 . Radon-222 as a comparative tracer of transport and mixing in 2 general-circulation models of the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 2849 – 2866 .  

  8. Hutter , A. R. and Knutson , E. O. 1998 . An international intercomparison of soil gas radon and radon exhala-tion measurements. Health Phys . 74 , 108 - 114 .  

  9. Israel , H . 1951 Radioactivity of the atmosphere. In Compendium of meteorology (ed. T. F. Malone). Am. Meteorol. Soc., Washington, DC, 155 - 161 .  

  10. Jacob , D. J. , Prather , M. J. , Rasch , P. J. , Shia , R. L. , Balkanski , Y. J. , Beagley , S. R. , Bergmann , D. J. , Black-shear , W. T. , Brown , M. , Chiba , M. , Chipperfield , M. P ., deGrandpre , J. , Dignon , J. E. , Feichter , J. , Genthon , C. , Grose , W. L. , Kasibhatla , P. S. , Kohler , I. , Kritz , M. A. , Law , K. , Penner , J. E. , Ramonet , M. , Reeves , C. E. , Rotman , D. A. , Stockwell , D. Z. , VanVelthoven , P. F. J. , Verver , G. , Wild , O. , Yang , H. and Zimmermann , P. 1997. Evaluation and inter-comparison of global atmospheric transport models using 222Rn and other short-lived tracers. J. Geophys Res . 102 , 5953 - 5970 .  

  11. Keller , G. and Schutz , M . 1988 . Radon exhalation from the soil. Radiat. Protect. Dosim . 24 , 43 – 46 .  

  12. Kirichenko , L. V . 1970 . Radon exhalation from vast areas according to vertical distribution of its short-lived decay products. J. Geophys. Res . 75 , 3639 - 3649 .  

  13. Koarashi , J. , Amano , H. , Andoh , M. and Iida , T. 2000. Estimation of 222Rn flux from ground surface based on the variation analysis of 222Rn concentrations in a closed chamber. Radiat. Protect. Dosim . 87 , 121 – 131 .  

  14. Kuhlmann , A. J. , Worthy , D. E. J. , Trivett , N. B. A. and Levin , I . 1998 . Methane emissions from a wetland region within Hudson Bay Lowland: an atmospheric approach. J. Geophys. Res . 103 , 16,009 - 16,016 .  

  15. Lambert , G. , Polian , G. , Sanak , J. , Ardouin , B. , Buis-son , A. , Jegou , A. and Le Roulley , J. C . 1982 . Cycle du radon et de ses descendants: application a l'étude des échanges troposphere—stratosphere. Ann. Geophys . 38 , 497 – 531 .  

  16. Lee , H. N. and Feichter , J . 1995 . An intercomparison of wet precipitation scavenging schemes and the emission rates of 222Rn for the simulation of global transport and deposition of 210Pb. J. Geophys. Res. 100 , 23 , 252-23 , 270 .  

  17. Levin , I. , Glatzel-Mattheier , H. , Marik , T. , Cuntz , M. and Schmidt , M. 1999. Verification of German meth-ane emission inventories and their recent changes based on atmospheric observations. J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 3447 - 3456 .  

  18. Li , Y. H. and Chang , J. S . 1996 . A three-dimensional global episodic tracer transport model. Evaluation of its processes by radon-222 simulations. J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 25,931 - 25,947 .  

  19. Moriizumi , J. , Nagamine , K. , Iida , T. and Ikebe , Y . 1996 . Estimation of areal flux of atmospheric methane in an urban area of Nagoya, Japan, inferred from atmo-spheric radon-222 data. Atmos. Environ . 30 , 1543 – 1549 .  

  20. Nazaroff , 1992 . Radon transport from soil to air. Rev. Geophys . 30 , 137 – 160 .  

  21. Nielson , K. K. , Rogers , V. C. and Holt , R. B . 1996 . Measurements and calculations of soil radon flux at 325 sites throughout Florida. Environ. Int . 22 (Suppl. 1), S471—S476.  

  22. Preiss , N. , Mélieres , M.-A. , Pourchet , M . 1996 . A com-pilation of data on lead 210 concentration in surface air and fluxes at the air-surface and water-sediment interfaces. J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 28,847 - 28,862 .  

  23. Rasch , P. J. , Feichter , J. , Law , K. , Mahowald , N. , Penner , J. , Benkovitz , C. , Genthon , C. , Giannako-poulos , C. , Kasibhatla , P. , Koch , D. , Levy , H. , Maki , T. , Prather , M. , Roberts , D. L. , Roelofs , G.-J. , Stevenson , D. , Stockwell , Z. , Taguchi , S. , Kritz , M. , Chipperfield , M. , Baldocchi , D. , McMurry , P. , Barrie , L. , Balkanski , Y. , Chatfield , R. , Kjellström , E. , Lawrence , M. , Lee , H. N. , Lelieveld , J. , Noone , K. J. , Seinfeld , J. , Stenchikov , G. , Schwartz , S. , Walcek , C. and Williamson , D . 2000 . A comparison of scavenging and deposition processes in global models: results from the WCRP Cambridge Workshop of 1995.  

  24. Schery , S. D. , Whittlestone , S. , Hart , K. P. and Hill , S. E . 1989 . The flux of radon and thoron from Australian soils. J. Geophys. Res . 94 , 8567 – 8576 .  

  25. SchilBler , W . 1996 . Effective Parameter zur Bestimmung des Gasaustauschs zwischen Boden und Atmosphdre. PhD Thesis , University of Heidelberg .  

  26. Servant , J . 1964 . Radon and its short lived daughters in the atmosphere . Ph.D. Thesis. University of Paris.  

  27. Stillwell-Soller , L. M. , Klinger , L. F. , Pollard , D. and Thompson , S. L . 1995 . The global distribution of wet-lands . NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-416 + STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder , Colorado .  

  28. Somashekarappa , H. M. , Narayana , Y. , Radhakrishna , A. P. , Siddappa , K. , Joshi , V. B. , Kholekar , R. V. and Bhagwat , A. M . 1996 . Atmospheric radon levels and its emanation rate in the environment of Kaiga. Radiat. Meas . 26 , 35 – 41 .  

  29. Stockwell D. Z. , Kritz , M. A. , Chipperfield , M. P. and Pyle , J. A . 1998 . Validation of an off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model using observed radon profiles. 2. Model results. J. Geophys. Res . 103 , 8433 – 8445 .  

  30. Stockwell , D. Z. and Chipperfield , M. P . 1999 . A tropo-spheric chemical-transport model: development and validation of the model transport schemes. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc . 125 , 1747 – 1783 .  

  31. Tojo , K . 1989 . Survey of 222Rn exhalation rate from ground and its relationship with atmospheric 222Rn con-centration . Master Thesis, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Nagoya University (in Japanese).  

  32. Trumbore , S. E. , Keller , M. Wofsy , S. C. and Da Costa , J. M. 1990 . Measurements of soil and canopy exchange rates in the Amazon rain rorest using 222Rn. J. Geo-phys. Res. 95, 16,865 - 16,873 .  

  33. Turekian , K. K. , Nozaki , Y. and Benninger , L. K . 1977 . Geochemistry of atmospheric radon and radon prod-ucts. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet Sc i . 5 , 227 – 255 .  

  34. Uchida , M. , Nojiri , Y. ,. Saigusa , N. and Oikawa , T . 1997 . Calculation of CO2 flux from forest soil using 222Rn calibrated method. Agric. Forest Meteorol . 87 , 301 – 311 .  

  35. Ussler , W. , Chanton , J. P. , Kelly , C. A. and Martens , C. S . 1994 . Radon-222 tracing of soil and forest canopy trace gas exchange in an open canopy forest. J. Geo-phys. Res . 99 , 1953 – 1963 .  

  36. Whittlestone , S. , Zahorowski , W. and Schery , S. D . 1998 . Radon flux variability with season and location in Tasmania, Australia. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem . 236 , 213 – 217 .  

  37. Wilkening , M. H. , Clements , W. E. and Stanley , D . 1975 . Radon-222 flux measurements in widely separated regions. In The natural radiation environment ll (ed. J. A. S. Adams). USERDA CONF- 720805 , 717 – 730 .  

  38. Xu , N. , Wei , F. S. , Ten , E. J. and Chen , L. Q. 1993 . Evaluation of indigenous concentrations of uranium and thorium in soils of China. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal . 24 , 1795 – 1803 .  

comments powered by Disqus