Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Budget calculations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Northern Hemisphere —a singl...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Budget calculations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Northern Hemisphere —a single-box approach

Authors:

Johan Axelman ,

Institute of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm University, SE
X close

Dag Broman

Institute of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm University, SE
X close

Abstract

Numerous studies show that the environmental concentrations of PCBs have been decreasing since the production and use of PCBs in most industrialised countries was banned in the 1970s. However, most of these studies have been conducted close to historical sources. The few studies conducted in remote locations detect no trend of decreasing concentrations over the past 20–30 years. These observations suggest that PCBs may be removed more slowly from the environment, when viewed from a global or hemispheric perspective. The present study estimates the mass fluxes of individual PCB congeners in the Northern Hemisphere in order to elucidate the most important removal processes and the rate of decrease one may expect with complete cessation of emissions. Atmospheric reaction lifetimes, open-ocean settling fluxes and the pools and mobility of PCBs in the terrestrial environment are shown to be crucial parameters. However, the calculations identify important gaps of knowledge regarding predictions of environmental half-lives of PCBs. The results suggest that highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB 153 and 180 may be persistent in the global environment with annual rates of decrease of less than 1%. The compiled environmental data also highlight large differences between the different PCB congeners. Although this paper is based on more than 800 PCB measurements it should be considered a starting point for further research aiming to quantify the global fate of toxic and persistent organic substances such as the PCBs.

How to Cite: Axelman, J. and Broman, D., 2001. Budget calculations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Northern Hemisphere —a single-box approach. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 53(3), pp.235–259. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v53i3.16594
  Published on 01 Jan 2001
 Accepted on 13 Feb 2001            Submitted on 4 Apr 2000

REFERENCES

  1. Alcock , R. E. , Johnston , A. R. , McGrath , S. P. , Berrow , M. L. and Jones , K. C . 1993 . Long-term changes in the polychlorinated biphenyl content of United King-dom soils . Environ. Sci. Technol . 27 , 1918 – 1923 .  

  2. AMAP 1998. AMAP assessment report: Arctic pollution issues . Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), AMAP Secretariat, P.O. Box 8100, N-0032 Oslo, Norway .  

  3. Anderson P. N. and Elites , R. A . 1996 . OH radical reac-tions: the major removal pathway for polychlorinated biphenyls from the atmosphere . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 1756 – 1763 .  

  4. Atkinson , R . 1987 . Estimation of OH radical reaction rate constants and atmospheric lifetimes for polychlo-robiphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans . Environ. Sci. Technol . 21 , 305 – 307 .  

  5. Atlas , E. and Giam , C. S . 1981 . Global transport of organic pollutants: ambient concentrations in the remote marine atmosphere . Science 211, 163 – 165 .  

  6. Axelman , J. , Bandh , C. , Broman , D. , Carman , R. , Jonsson , P. , Larsson , H. , Linder , H. , Näl , C. and Pettersen , H. 1995. Time-trend analysis of PAH and PCB sediment fluxes in the northern Baltic proper using different dating methods . Mar. Freshwater Res . 46 , 137 – 144 .  

  7. Axelman , J. and Broman , D . 1999 . Inventories and fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls from a contaminated industrial site . Environ. Toxicol. Chem . 18 , 1871 – 1881 .  

  8. Axelman , J. , Na!' , C. , Bandh , C. , Ishaq , R. , Pettersen , H. , Zebfihr , Y. and Broman , D . 2001 . Dynamics and distri-bution of hydrophobic organic compounds in the Baltic Sea. In: A systems analysis of the Baltic Sea. Ecological studies , vol. 148 (eds. Wulff, F. et al), pp. 257 – 287 . Springer-Verlag, Berlin.  

  9. Berdowski , J. J. M. , Baas , J. , Bloos , J. P. J. , Visschedijk , A. J. H. and Zandveld , P. Y. J . 1997 . The European atmospheric emission inventory of heavy metals and per-sistent organic pollutants. TNO Institute of Environ-mental Sciences, Energy Research and Process Innovation, P.O. Box 342, NL-7300 AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands .  

  10. Berner , R. A . 1989 . Biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur and their effect on atmospheric oxygen over phanerozoic time . Global Planet. Change 75 , 97 – 122 .  

  11. Bidleman , T. F . 1988 . Atmospheric processes . Environ. Sci. Technol . 22 , 361 – 367 .  

  12. Bidleman , T. F. , Christensen , E.-J. , Billings , W. N. and Leonard , R . 1981 . Atmospheric transport of organochlorines in the North Atlantic gyre . J. Mar. Res . 39 , 443 – 464 .  

  13. Bidleman , T. F. and Olney , C. E . 1974 . Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Sargasso Sea atmosphere and surface water . Science 183 , 516 – 518 .  

  14. Bignert , A. , Göthberg , A. , Jensen , S. , Litzén , K. , Odsjö , T. , Olsson , M. and Reutergardh , L . 1993 . The need for adequate biological sampling in ecotoxicological investigations: a retrospective study of twenty years pollution monitoring . Sci. Tot. Environ . 128 , 121 – 139 .  

  15. Brorstrom-Lunden , E . 1996 . Atmospheric deposition of persistent organic compounds to the sea surface . J. Sea Res . 35 , 81 – 90 .  

  16. Brorstrom-Lunden , E. , Lindskog , A. and Mowrer , J . 1994 . Concentrations and fluxes of organic com-pounds in the atmosphere of the Swedish west coast . Atmos. Environ . 28 , 3605 – 3615 .  

  17. Buesseler , K.O. . 1998 . The decoupling of production and particulate export in the surface ocean. Global Biogeo-chem. Cycles 12 , 297 – 310  

  18. Calamari , D. , Bacci , E. , Focardi , S. , Gaggi , C. , Morosini , M. and Vighi , M . 1991 . Role of plant biomass in the global environmental partitioning of chlorinated hydrocarbons . Environ. Sci. Technol . 25 , 1489 – 1495 .  

  19. Cousins , I. T. and Jones , K. C . 1998 . Air-soil exchange of semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the UK . Environ. Pollut . 102 , 105 – 118 .  

  20. Cousins , I. T. , Gevao , B. and Jones , K. C . 1999 . Measur-ing and modelling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils. I: PCB and PAH soils core data . Chemosphere 39 , 2507 – 2518 .  

  21. Chevreuil , M. , Granier , L. , Chesterikhoff , A. and Létolle , R . 1990 . Polychlorinated biphenyls partitioning in waters from river, filtration plant and wastewater plant: the case for Paris (France) . Water Res . 24 , 1325 – 1333 .  

  22. Christensen , E. R. and Lo , C.-K . 1986 . Polychlorinated biphenyls in date sediments of Milwaukee harbour, Wisconsin, USA. Environ. Pollut. Series B 12, 217 – 232 .  

  23. Dachs , J. , Bayona , J. M. , Fowler , S. W. , Miguel , J.-C. and Albaigés , J. 1996 . Vertical fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine com-pounds in the western Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean) . Mar. Chem . 52 , 75 – 86 .  

  24. Duce , R. A. , Liss , P. S. , Merill , J. T. , Atlas , E. L. , Buat-Menard , P. , Hicks , B. B. , Miller , J. M. , Prospero , J. M. , Arimoto , R. , Church , T. M. , Ellis , W. , Galloway , J. N. , Hansen , L. , Jickells , T. D. , Knap , A. H. , Reinhardt , K. H. , Schneider , B. , Soudine , A. , Tokos , J. J. , Tsunogai , S. , Wollast , R. and Zhou , M . 1991 . The atmospheric input of trace species to the world ocean . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 5 , 193 – 259 .  

  25. Eisenreich , S. J. , Capel , P. D. , Robbins , J. A. and Bourbonniere , R . 1989 . Accumulation and diagenesis of chlorinated hydrocarbons in lacustrine sediments . Environ. Sci. Technol . 23 , 1116 – 1126 .  

  26. Elsenreich , S. J. and Johnson , T. C . 1983 . PCBs in the Great Lakes: sources, sinks, burdens In: PCBs: human and environmental hazards (ed. F. M. D'Itri and M. A. Kamrin). Butterworth, Boston , USA .  

  27. Eriksson , G. , Jensen , S. , Kylin , LI. and Strachan , W . 1989 . The pine needle as a monitor of atmospheric pollution . Nature 341 , 42 – 44 .  

  28. Evans , L. J. and Cameron , B. H . 1979 . A chronosequence of soils developed from granitic morainal material, Baffin Island, N.W.T . Can. J. Soil Sci . 60 , 527 – 539 .  

  29. Giam , C. S. , Atlas , E. , Chan , H. S. and Neff , G. S . 1980 . Phtalate esters, PCB and DDT residues in the Gulf of Mexico atmosphere . Atmos. Environ . 14 , 65 – 69 .  

  30. Gobas , F. A. P. C. , Z'Graggen , M. N. and Zhang , X . 1995 . Time response of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to virtual elimination of PCBs . Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 2038 – 2046 .  

  31. Gregor , D. J. , Peters , A. J. , Teixeira , C. , Jones , N. and Spencer , C . 1995 . The historical residue trend of PCBs in the Agassiz ice cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada . Sci. Total Environ . 160/161 , 117 – 126 .  

  32. Gustafsson, Q. Gschwend , P. M., and Buesseler, K. O. 1997. Settling removal rates of PCBs into the North-western Atlantic derived from 2381.7-234Th disequilib-ria. Environ. Sci. Technol . 31 , 3544 – 3550  

  33. Hargrave , B. T. , Vass , W. P. , Erickson , P. E. and Fowler , B. R . 1989 . Atmospheric transport of organochlorines to the Arctic Ocean . Tellus 40B , 480 – 493 .  

  34. Harner , T. , Mackay , D. and Jones , K. C . 1995 . Model of the long-term exchange of PCBs between soil and the atmosphere in the southern U.K . Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 1200 – 1209 .  

  35. Harrad , S. J. , Sewart , A. P. , Alcock, R., Boumphrey, R., Burnett, V., Duarte-Davidson, R., Halsall, C., Sanders, G., Waterhouse, K., Wild, S. R. and Jones, K. C. 1994. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British envir-onment: sinks, sources and temporal trends. Environ. Poll . 85 , 131 – 146  

  36. Hillery , B. R. , Basu, I., Sweet, C. W. and Hites, R. A. 1997. Temporal and spatial trends in a long-term study of gas-phase PCB concentrations near the Great Lakes . Environ. Sci. Technol . 31 , 1811– 1816 .  

  37. Iwata , H. , Tanabe , S. , Sakai , N. and Tatsukawa , R . 1993 . Distribution of persistent organochlorines in the oceanic air and surface seawater and the role of ocean on their global transport and fate . Environ. Sci. Tech-nol . 27 , 1080 – 1098 .  

  38. Iwata , H. , Tanabe , S. , Ueda , K. and Tatsukuwa , R . 1995 . Persistent organochlorine residues in air, water, sedi-ments, and soils from the Lake Baikal region, Russia . Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 792 – 801 .  

  39. Jeremiason , J.D. ., Hornbuckle, K. C. and Eisenriech, S. J. 1994. PCBs in Lake Superior, 1978-1992: decreases in water concentrations reflect loss by volat-ilisation. Environ. Sci. Technol . 28 , 903 – 914  

  40. Jiang , K. , Li., L. Chen, Y. , and Jin, J. 1997. Determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in Chinese com-mercial PCBs and emissions from a testing PCB incin-erator. Chemosphere 34 , 941 – 950  

  41. Jury , W. A. , Russo, D., Streile, G. and El Abd, H. 1990. Evaluation of volatilisation of organic chemicals resid-ing below the soil surface. Water Resour. Res . 26 , 13 – 20  

  42. Karickhoff , S. W. , Brown , D. S. , Scott , A . 1979 . Sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural water sediments . Water Res . 13 , 241 – 248 .  

  43. Kjeller , L .-0. and Rappe, C. 1995. Time trends in levels, patterns, and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenlys in a sediment core from the Baltic proper. Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 346 – 355  

  44. Knap , A. H. , Binkley , K. S. and Deuser , W. G . 1986 Synthetic organic chemicals in the deep Sargasso Sea . Nature 319 , 572 – 574 .  

  45. Knap , A. H. and Binkley , K. C . 1991 . Chlorinated organic compounds in the troposphere over the west-ern North Atlantic Ocean measured by aircraft . Atmos. Environ . 25A , 1507 – 1518 .  

  46. Krauss , M. , Wilke , W. and Zech , W . 2000 . Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in forest soils: depth distribution as indicator of differ-ent fate . Environ. Pollut . 110 , 79 – 88 .  

  47. Lead , W. A. , Steinnes , E. and Jones , K. C . 1996 . Atmo-spheric deposition of PCBs to moss (Hylocomnium splendens) in Norway between 1977 and 1990 . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 534 – 530 .  

  48. Lee , R. G. , Hung , H. and Mackay , D . 1998 . Measurement and modeling of the diurnal cycling of atmospheric PCBs and PAHs . Environ. Sci. Technol . 32 , 2172 – 2179 .  

  49. Lelieveld , J. , Crutzen , P. J. and Rodhe , H . 1989 . Zonal average cloud characteristics for global atmospheric chemistry modeling. Report CM-76 UDC 551.510.4 International Meteorological Institute in Stockholm ISSN 0280-445X .  

  50. Lohse , J . 1988 . Ocean incineration of toxic wastes: a foot print in North Sea sediments . Mar. Pollut. Bull . 19 , 366 – 371 .  

  51. Manchester-Neesvig , J. B. and Andren , A. W . 1989 . Sea-sonal variation in the atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners . Environ. Sci. Technol . 23 , 1138 – 1148 .  

  52. Martin , J. H. , Knauer , G. A. , Karl , D. M. and Broenkow , W. W . 1987 . VERTEX: carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific . Deep-Sea Res . 34 , 267 – 285 .  

  53. McCave , I. N . 1995 . Sedimentary processes and the cre-ation of the stratigraphic record in the Late Quarten-ary North Atlantic Ocean . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B348 , 229 – 241 .  

  54. McConnell , L. L. , Kucklick , J. R. , Bidleman , T. F. , Ivanov , G. P. and Chernyak , S. M . 1996 . Air-water gas exchange of organochlorine compounds in Lake Baikal, Russia . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 2975 – 2983 .  

  55. Monosmith , C. L. and Hermanson , M. H . 1996 . Spatial and temporal trends of atmospheric organochlorine vapors in the central and upper Great Lakes . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 3464 – 3472 .  

  56. Montafies , J. F. C. , Riseborough , R. W. , De Lappe , B. W. , Marifio , M. C. and Albaigés , J . 1990 . Estimated input of organochlorines from the river Ebro into the North-western Mediterranean . Mar Pollut. Bull . 21 , 518 – 523 .  

  57. Muir , D. C. G. , Omelchenko , A. , Grift , N. P. , Savoie , D. A. , Lockhart , W. L. , Wilkinson , W. L. and Brun-skill , G. J. 1996 . Spatial trends and historical depos-ition of polychlorinated biphenyls in Canadian midlatitude and Arctic lake sediments . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 3609 – 3617 .  

  58. Murphy , T. J. , Formanski , L. J. , Brownawell , B. and Meyer , J. A . 1985 . Polychlorinated biphenyl emissions to the atmosphere in the Great Lakes region. Muni-cipal landfills and incinerators . Environ. Sci. Technol . 19 , 942 – 946 .  

  59. NAS 1979 . Polychlorinated biphenyls . Washington, DC , National Academy of Science .  

  60. Ngabe , B. and Bidleman , T. F . 1992 . Occurrence and vapor particle partitioning of heavy organic com-pounds in ambient air in Brazzaville, Congo . Environ. Pollut . 76 , 147 – 156 .  

  61. Oehme , M. , Haugen , J.-E. and Schlabach , M . 1995 . Ambient air levels of persistent organochlorines in spring 1992. at Spitsbergen and the Norwegian main-land: comparison with 1984 results and quality control measurements . Sci. Total Environ . 160/161 , 139 – 152 .  

  62. Oehme , M. , Haugen , J.-E. and Schlabach , M . 1996 . Sea-sonal changes and relations between levels of organo-chlorines in arctic ambient air: first results of an all-year-round monitoring program at Ny-Alesund, Sval-bard, Norway . Environ. Sci. Technol . 30 , 2294 – 2304 .  

  63. Ofjord , G. D. , Puhakka , J. A. and Ferguson , J. F . 1994 . Reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 by marine sediment cultures . Environ. Sci. Technol . 28 , 2286 – 2294 .  

  64. Oliver , B. G. , Charlton , M. N. and Durham , R. W . 1989 . Distribution, redistribution, and geochronology of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorin-ated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario sediments . Environ. Sci. Technol . 23 , 200 – 208 .  

  65. Panshin , S. Y. and Hites , R. A . 1994a . Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls at Bermuda . Environ. Sci. Technol . 28 , 2001 – 2007 .  

  66. Panshin , S. Y. and Hites , R. A . 1994b . Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls at Bloom-ington, Indiana . Environ. Sci. Technol . 28 , 2008 – 2013 .  

  67. Petrick , G. , Schulz-Bull , D. E. , Martens , V. , Scholz , K. and Duinker , J. C . 1996 . An in-situ filtration/extrac-tion system for the recovery of trace organics in solu-tion and on particles tested in deep ocean water . Mar. Chem . 54 , 97 – 105 .  

  68. Rapaport , R. A. and Eisenreich , S. J . 1988 . Historical atmospheric inputs of high molecular weight chlorin-ated hydrocarbons to eastern North America . Environ. Sci. Technol . 22 , 931 – 941 .  

  69. Rodhe , H . 1992 . Modeling biogeochemical cycles. In: Global biogeochemical cycles (ed. S. S. Butcher , R. J. Charlson , G. H. Orians and G. V. Wolfe ). Aca-demic Press, pp. 55 – 72 .  

  70. Sanders , G. , Jones , K. C. and Hamilton-Taylor , J . 1995 . PCB and PAH fluxes to a dated UK peat core . Environ. Pollut . 89 , 17 – 25 .  

  71. Schlesinger , W. H . 1977 . Carbon balance in terrestrial detritus . Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst . 8 , 51 – 81 .  

  72. Schlesinger , W. H . 1991 . Biogeochemistry - an analysis of global change . San Diego , Academic Press .  

  73. Schulz , D. E. , Petrick , G. and Duinker , J. C . 1988 . Chlor-inated biphenyls in North Atlantic surface and deep water . Mar. Pollut. Bull . 19 , 526 – 531 .  

  74. Schulz , D. E. , Petrick , G. and Duinker , J. C . 1989 . Com-plete characterization of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commercial Aroclor and Clophen mix-tures by multidimensional gas chromatography-elec-tron capture detection . Environ. Sci. Technol . 23 , 852 – 859 .  

  75. Schwarzenbach , R. P. , Gschwend , P. M. and Imboden , D. M . 1993 . Environmental organic chemistry . Wiley Interscience , New York , USA .  

  76. Sedlak , D. L. and Andren , A. W . 1991 . Aqueous-phase oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by hydroxyl radicals . Environ. Sci. Technol . 25 , 1419 – 1427 .  

  77. Sokol , R. C. , Bethoney , C. M. and Rhee , G.-Y . 1995 . Effect of PCB concentration on reductive dechlorina-tion and dechlorination potential an natural sedi-ments . Water Res . 29 , 45 – 48 .  

  78. Spivakovsky , C. M. , Logan , J. A. , Montzka , S. A. , Balk-anski , Y. J. , Foreman-Fowler , M. , Jones , D. B. A. , Horowitz , L. W. , Fusco , A. C. , Brenninkmeijer , C. A. M. , Prather , M. J. , Wofsy , S. C. and McElroy , M. B . 2000 . Three-dimensional climatological distribu-tion of tropospheric OH: update and evaluation . J. Geophys. Res . 105D , 8931 – 8990 .  

  79. Speidel , D. H. and Agnew , A. F . 1982 . The natural geo-chemistry of our environment . Westview Press, Boulder , Colorado , USA .  

  80. StatSoft, Inc. , 2300 East 14th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA .  

  81. Stem , G. A. , Halsall , C. J. , Barrie , L. A. , Muir , D. C. G. , Fellin , P. , Rosenberg , B. , Rovinsky, F. YA. , Kononov, E. YA. and Pastuhov , B . 1997 . Polychlorinated biphenyls in Arctic air (1) Temporal and spatial trends: 1992-1994 . Environ. Sci. Technol . 31 , 3619 – 3628 .  

  82. Stuiver , M. , Quay , P. D. and Ostlund , H. G . 1983 . Abyssal water carbon-14 distribution and the age of the world oceans . Science 219 , 849 – 851 .  

  83. Tanabe , S. , Ridaka , H. and Tatsukawa , R . 1983 . PCBs and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere . Chemosphere 12 , 277 – 288 .  

  84. Thao , V. D. , Kawano , M. , Matsuda , M. , Wakimoto , T. and Tatsukawa , R . 1993a . Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in soils from southern provinces of Vietnam . Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem . 50 , 147 – 159 .  

  85. Thao , V. D. , Kawano , M. and Tatsukawa , R . 1993b . Persistent organochlorine residues in soils from trop-ical and sub-tropical Asian countries Environ . Pollut. 81 , 61 – 71 .  

  86. The Times' Atlas of the World , 1999. Comprehensive edition, 10th ed. Times Books Group, London, UK.  

  87. Tolosa, I. , Bayona, J. M. and Albaigés, J. 1995. Spatial and temporal distribution, fluxes, and budgets of organochlorinated compounds in Northwest Mediter-ranean sediments. Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 2519 – 2527  

  88. Ueda , K. , Nanbu , S. , Yoshida , T. , Tatsukawa , R. , Fujii , M. and Oikawa , K . 1976 . The utilization and environ-mental levels of certain chemical substances (I) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury . J. Environ. Pollut. Control . 12 , 1254 – 1266 .  

  89. Ugolini , F. C . 1968 . Soil development and alder invasion in a recently deglaciated area of Glacier Bay, Alaska In: Biology of alder (ed. J. M. Trappe et al). U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experi-ment Station, Portland , Oregon .  

  90. Wania , F. and Mackay , D . 1993 . Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organochlorine compounds in polar regions . Ambio 22 , 10 – 18 .  

  91. Whittaker , R. H. and Likens G. E . 1973 . Carbon in the biota In: Carbon and the biosphere (eds. G. M. Woodwell and E. V. Pecan ). CONE 720510, National Technical Information Service, Washington D.C., pp. 281 – 302 .  

  92. Wong , C. S. , Sanders , G. , Engstrom , D. R. , Long , D. T. , Swackhamer , D. L. and Eisenreich , S. J . 1995 . Accumu-lation, inventory, and diagenesis of chlorinated hydro-carbons in Lake Ontario sediments . Environ. Sci. Technol . 29 , 2661 – 2672 .  

comments powered by Disqus