Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Measurements of atmospheric CO2 from a meteorological tower in Tsukuba, Japan

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Measurements of atmospheric CO2 from a meteorological tower in Tsukuba, Japan

Authors:

Hisayuki Yoshikawa Inoue ,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Hidekazu Matsueda

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Abstract

Since February 1992, measurements of atmospheric CO2 at 200 m above the ground have been taken from a meteorological tower (lat 36°04′N, long 140°07′E, 25 m a.s.l.) in Tsukuba, central Japan. A diurnal variation of atmospheric CO2 at 200 m was clearly observed in summer and less clearly in winter. In summer, the maximum occurred a few hours after dawn and the minimum in the late afternoon; in winter, the CO2 mixing ratio was fairly constant because of temperature inversion below 200 m. The daily mean values of atmospheric CO2 in the afternoon (1300–1600 JST), selected as they were close to the representative values in the planetary boundary layer, were as high as 4 to 6 ppm greater than at stations in remote areas of the same latitudinal zone. This was mainly due to CO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources in central Japan. The peak-to-trough amplitude of the seasonal variation, caused by the CO2 exchange between the air and the land biosphere, ranged from 11 to 14 ppm. Year-to-year changes in the seasonal variation of atmospheric CO2 during the period from May to July were correlated well with the surface air temperature among climate variables that affect the photosynthesis/respiration of the land biosphere. The change in CO2 mixing ratio of the detrended seasonal variation from May to July increased with the surface air temperature, which was suggestive of the larger temperature dependence of respiration rate as compared with that of photosynthesis rate. Over the period from 1993 to 1999, the annual mean of the CO2 mixing ratio increased from 363.0 ppm to 374.6 ppm. The growth rate from February 1992 to January 2000 showed a large interannual variability ranging from −0.8 to 4.6 ppm yr−1 with a mean rate of 2.0 ppm yr−1.

How to Cite: Inoue, H.Y. and Matsueda, H., 2001. Measurements of atmospheric CO2 from a meteorological tower in Tsukuba, Japan. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 53(3), pp.205–219. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v53i3.16592
  Published on 01 Jan 2001
 Accepted on 16 Jan 2001            Submitted on 4 Jan 2000

REFERENCES

  1. Bakwin , P. S. , Zhao , C ., Ussler III, W., Tans, P. P. and Quesnell, E. 1995. Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower. Tellus 47B, 535 – 549 .  

  2. Bakwin , P. S. , Tans , P. P. , Hurst , D. F. and Zhao , C . 1998 . Measurements of carbon dioxide on very tall towers: results of the NOAA/CMDL program . Tellus 50B , 401 – 415 .  

  3. Conway , T. J. , Tans , P. , Waterman , L. S. , Thoning , K. W. , Masarie , K. A. and Gammon , R. H . 1988 . Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements in the remote global troposphere, 1981-1984 . Tellus 40B , 81 – 115 .  

  4. Conway , T. J. , Tans , P. P. , Waterman , L. S. , Thoning , K. W. , Kitzis , D. R. , Masarie , K. A. and Zhang , N . 1994 . Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmo-spheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diag-nostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network. J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 22,831 – 22,855  

  5. Gamo , M . 1984 . Seasonal change of the heat balance in the mixed layer. Kogai 19, 11-24 (in Japanese) .  

  6. GLOBALVIEW-CO 2. 1997. Cooperative Atmospheric Data Integration Project-Carbon Dioxide . 1997. CD-ROM, NOAA/CMDL, Boulder, CO. FTP, ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov, Path: ccg/CO2/GLOBALVIEW .  

  7. Haszpra , L . 1995 . Carbon dioxide concentration meas-urements at a rural site in Hungary . Tellus 47B , 17 – 22 .  

  8. Inoue and Matsueda . 1996 . Variations in atmospheric CO2 at the Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan . J. Atmos. Chem . 23 , 137 – 161 .  

  9. IPCC. 1990 . Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment , edited by J. T. Houghton , G. J. Jerkins and J. J. Ephraums. Cambridge University Press. New York .  

  10. IPCC. 1995. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change , edited by J. T. Houghton, L. G. M. Meira Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell. Cambridge University Press. New York .  

  11. JMA . 2000 . Annual Report of the Japan Meteorological Agency . Japan Meteorological Agency , Tokyo .  

  12. Keeling , C.D. ., Bacastow, R. B., Carter, A. F., Piper, S. C., Whorf, T. P., Heimann, M., Mook, W. G. and Roeloffzen, H. 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: (1). Analysis of observational data. In: Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and western America, edited by D. M. Peterson. pp. 165 – 236 . AGU Geophysical Monograph. Washington DE .  

  13. Keeling , C.D. ., Chin, J. F. S. and Whorf, T. P. 1996. Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature 358 , 723 – 727  

  14. Kuc , T . 1991 . Concentration and carbon isotopic com-position of atmospheric CO2 in southern Poland . Tellus 43B , 373 – 378 .  

  15. Levin , I . 1987 . Atmospheric CO2 in continental Europe, an alternative approach to clean air CO2 data . Tellus 39B , 21 – 28 .  

  16. Levin, I. , Graul, R. and Trivett, N. B. A. 1995. Long-term observations of atmospheric CO2 and carbon isotopes at continental sites in Germany. Tellus 47B , 23 – 34  

  17. Marland , G. , Boden , T. , Brenkert , A. , Andres , B. and Johnston , C . 1999 . National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1996. In: Trends online, A compendium of date on global change . http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/ ndp030/nation96.ems  

  18. Matsueda , H. and Inoue , H. Y . 1996 . Measurements of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 using a commercial airliner from 1993 to 1994 . Atmos. Environ . 30 , 1647 – 1655 .  

  19. MMO . 1959. Ibaraki-ken no Kikou (The climate of lbaraki Prefecture) , Mito Meteorological Observatory (in Japanese). pp. 15 – 16 . Japan Meteorological Asso-ciation. Tokyo.  

  20. Nakazawa , T. , Morimoto , S. , Aoki , S. and Tanaka , M . 1993 . Time and space variations of the carbon isotopic ratio of tropospheric carbon dioxide over Japan . Tellus 45B , 258 – 274 .  

  21. Report of Observation at the Meteorological Obser-vation Tower . 1997. No. 6 (1994-1996), pp. 1 – 48 . Meteorological Research Institute. Tsukuba, Japan .  

  22. Schmidt , M. , Graul, R., Sartorius, H. and Levin, I. 1996. Carbon dioxide and methane in continental Europe: a climatology, and 222Radon-based emission estimates. Tellus 48B , 457 – 473  

  23. Takeuchi , K . 1997 . Wind in the planetary boundary layer. In: Meteorology of the wind (Lectures on Meteorology 4, in Japanese), pp. 7 – 48 . University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.  

  24. Tanaka , M. , Nakazawa , T. and Aoki , S . 1987 . Time and space variations of tropospheric carbon dioxide over Japan . Tellus 39B , 3 – 12 .  

  25. Tans , P. P . 1991 . An observational strategy for assessing the role of terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon cycle: scaling down to regional levels . In: Scaling pro-cesses between leaf and landscape levels , edited by J. Ehleringer and C. Field. Academic Press , San Diego .  

  26. Tans , P. P. , Bakwin , P. S. , Bruhwiler , L. , Conway , T. J. , Dlugokencky E. J. , Guenther , D. W. , Hurst , D. F. , Kitzis , D.R. ., Lang, P. M., Masarie, K. A., Miller, J. B., Novelli, P. C., Prostoko-Bell, C., Thoning, K. W., Vaughn, B. H., White, J. W. C., Yakir, D. and Zhao, C. 1998. Carbon Cycle, ch. 2, in Climate monitoring and diagnostics laboratory , Summary report no. 24, 1996-1997, edited by D. J. Hofmann, J. T. Peterson and R. M. Rosson, pp. 30 – 51 . NOAA Environ. Res. Labs., Boulder, CO., USA.  

  27. Thoning , K. W. , Tans , P. P. and Komhyr , W. D . 1989 . Atmospheric carbon dioxide at Mauna Loa Observat-ory. 2. Analysis of the NOAA GMCC data 1974-1985 . J. Geophys. Res . 94 , 8549 – 8565 .  

  28. VEMAP Members , 1995 . VEMAP: A comparison of biogeography and biogeochemistry models in the con-text of global climate change . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9 , 407 – 437 .  

  29. WMO WDCGG . 2000 . World Meteorological Organiza-tion. Global Atmosphere Watch. World Data Center for Greenhouse Gases. WMO WDCGG DATA REPORT. WDCGG No. 21. Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan .  

  30. Yamamoto , S. , Murayama , S. , Saigusa , N. and Kondo , H . 1999 . Seasonal and interannual variation of CO2 flux between a temperate forest and the atmosphere in Japan . Tellus 51B , 402 – 413 .  

comments powered by Disqus