Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vap...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE-2, and comparison with selected land, ship, aircraft, and satellite measurements

Authors:

John M. Livingston ,

SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA, US
X close

Vladimir N. Kapustin,

Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, US
X close

Beat Schmid,

Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, US
X close

Philip B. Russell,

NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, US
X close

Patricia K. Quinn,

NOAA-Pacific Marine Environmental L aboratory, Seattle, WA, US
X close

Timothy S. Bates,

NOAA-Pacific Marine Environmental L aboratory, Seattle, WA, US
X close

Philip A. Durkee,

Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, US
X close

Peter J. Smith,

Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, US
X close

Volker Freudenthaler,

University of Munich, Munich, DE
X close

Matthias Wiegner,

University of Munich, Munich, DE
X close

Dave S. Covert,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US
X close

Santiago Gassó,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US
X close

Dean Hegg,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, US
X close

Donald R. Collins,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA; Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, US
X close

Richard C. Flagan,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, US
X close

John H. Seinfeld,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, US
X close

Vito Vitale,

Istituto FISBAT-CNR, Bologna, IT
X close

Claudio Tomasi

Istituto FISBAT-CNR, Bologna, IT
X close

Abstract

Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center’s 6-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V Professor Vodyanitskiy during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA-14/AVHRR satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14−channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30−80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering measured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from radiosonde measurements during 8 soundings on 7 days and also with values calculated from measurements taken on 10 July with the AATS-14 and the University of Washington Passive Humidigraph aboard the Pelican.

How to Cite: Livingston, J.M., Kapustin, V.N., Schmid, B., Russell, P.B., Quinn, P.K., Bates, T.S., Durkee, P.A., Smith, P.J., Freudenthaler, V., Wiegner, M., Covert, D.S., Gassó, S., Hegg, D., Collins, D.R., Flagan, R.C., Seinfeld, J.H., Vitale, V. and Tomasi, C., 2000. Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE-2, and comparison with selected land, ship, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 52(2), pp.594–619. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v52i2.17122
  Published on 01 Jan 2000
 Accepted on 4 Oct 1999            Submitted on 11 Feb 1999

References

  1. Ackermann , J . 1998 . The extinction-to-backscatter ratio of tropospheric aerosol: a numerical study . J. Atmos. and Oceanic Technol . 15 , 1043 – 1050 .  

  2. Bates , T. S. , Quinn , P. K. , Covert , D. S. , Coffman , D. J. , Johnson , J. E. and Wiedensohler , A . 2000 . Aerosol physical properties and controlling processes in the lower marine boundary layer: a comparison of sub-micron data from ACE-1 and ACE-2 . Tellus 52B , 258 – 272 .  

  3. Collins , D. R. , Jonsson , H. H. , Seinfeld , J. H. , Flagan , R. C ., Gass, S. , Hegg, D. A. , Russell, P. B. , Schmid, B. , Livingston, J. M. , Ostrom, E. , Noone, K. J. , Russell, L. M. and Putaud, J. P. 2000. In situ aerosol size distributions and clear column radiative closure during ACE-2. Tellus 52B , 498 – 525 .  

  4. Durkee , P. A. , Nielsen , K. E. , Russell , P. B. , Schmid , B. , Livingston , J. M. , Collins , D. , Flagan , R. C. , Seinfeld , J. H. , Noone , K. J. , Ostrom , E . Gass, S. , Hegg, D. , Bates , T. S. and Quinn , P. K . 2000 . Regional aerosol properties from satellite observations: ACE-1, TARFOX and ACE-2 results . Tellus 52B 484 – 497 .  

  5. Gasso, S. , Hegg, D. , Noone, K. , Covert, D. , Schmid, B. , Russell, P. , Livingston, J. , Durkee, P. and Jonsson, H. 2000. Optical and hygroscopic aerosol properties in the west subtropical Atlantic, and their contribution to the upwelling radiance. Tellus 52B , 546 – 567 .  

  6. Hanel, G. 1976. The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at ther-modynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air . Adv. Geophys . 19 , 77 – 188 .  

  7. Hoppel , W. A. , Fitzgerald , J. W. , Frick , G. M. and Larson , R. E . 1990 . Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean . J. Geophys. Res . 95 , 3659 – 3686 .  

  8. Johnson , J. E. , Koropalov , V. M. , Pickering , K. E. , Thompson , A. M. , Bond , N. and Elkins , J. W . 1993 . Third Soviet-American Gas and Aerosol (SAGA-3) experiment: overview and meteorological and oceano-graphic conditions. J. Geophys. Res . 98 , 16,893-16,908 .  

  9. Johnson, D., Osborne, S., Wood, R. Suhre, K., John-son, R., Businger, S., Quinn, P. K., Durkee, P., Russell, L. M., Andreae, M. O., O'Dowd, C., Noone, K. J., Bandy, B., Rapsomanikis, S. and Rudolph, J. 2000 . An overview of the Lagrangian experiments undertaken during the north Atlantic regional Aerosol Character-ization Experiment (ACE-2) . Tellus 52B , 290 – 320 .  

  10. Livingston, J. M. and Russell, P. B. 1989 . Comparison of satellite-inferred (SAGE II) AODs with corresponding airborne sun-photometer optical depths. Preprint AIAA 27th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 9-12, 1989, Reno, Nevada .  

  11. Livingston , J. M. and Russell , P. B . 1997 . AOD spectra, vertical profiles, and horizontal transects derived from TARFOX airborne sunphotometer measurements . EOS. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 78 , S92 .  

  12. Matsumoto , T. , Russell , P. B. , Mina , C. and Van Ark , W . 1987 . Airborne tracking sunphotometer . J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol . 4 , 336 – 339 .  

  13. Michalsky , J. J. , Liljegren , J. C. and Harrison , L. C . 1995 . A comparison of sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 25,995 – 26,003  

  14. Pueschel , R. F. and Livingston , J. M . 1990 . Aerosol spectral optical depths: jet fuel and forest fire smokes. J. Geophys. Res . 95 , 22,417 – 22,422  

  15. Quinn , P. K. , Coffman , D. J. , Kapustin , V. N. , Bates , T. S. and Covert , D. S . 1998 . Aerosol optical properties in the marine boundary layer during the first Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-1) and the under-lying chemical and physical aerosol properties. J. Geo-phys. Res . 103 , 16,547 – 16,563  

  16. Quinn , P. , Coffman , D. J. , Bates , T. S. and Covert , D. S . 2000 . Chemical and optical properties of ACE-2 aero-sol . Tellus 52B , 239 – 257 .  

  17. Raes , F. , Bates , T. and McGovern , F . 2000 . The second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2): gen-eral overview and main results . Tellus 52B , 111 – 126 .  

  18. Reddy , P. J. , Kreiner , F. W. , DeLuisi , J. J. and Kim , Y . 1990 . Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition . Global Biochem. Cycles 4 , 225 – 240 .  

  19. Russell , P. B. and Heintzenberg , J . 2000 . An overview of the ACE-2 clear sky column closure experiment (CLEARCOLUMN) . Tellus 52B , 463 – 483 .  

  20. Russell , P. B. , Livingston , J. M. , Pueschel , R. F. , Reagan , J. A. , Browell , E. V. , Toon , G. C. , Newman , P. A. , Schoeberl , M. R. , Lait , L. R. , Pfister , L. , Gao , Q. and Herman , B. M . 1993 . Post-Pinatubo optical depth spectra vs. latitude and vortex structure: airborne tracking sunphotometer measurements in AASE IL Geophys . Res. Lett. 20 , 2571 – 2574 .  

  21. Russell , P. B. , Hobbs , P. V. and Stowe , L. L . 1999a . Aerosol properties and radiative effects in the United States east coast haze plume: an overview of the Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observa-tional Experiment (TARFOX) . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 2213 – 2222 .  

  22. Russell , P. B. , Livingston , J. M. , Hignett , P. , Kinne , S. , Wong , J. and Hobbs , P. V . 1999b . Aerosol-induced radiative flux changes off the United States mid-Atlan-tic coast: comparison of values calculated from sun-photometer and in situ data with those measured by airborne pyranometer . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 2289 – 2307 .  

  23. Scheele , M. P. , Siegmund , P. C. and Van Velthoven , P. F. J . 1997 . Sensitivity of trajectories to data reso-lution and its dependence on the starting point: in or outside a tropopause fold . Meteor. Appl . 3 , 267 – 273 .  

  24. Schmid , B. , Thome , K. J. , Demoulin , P. , Peter , R. , Matzler , C. and Sekler , J . 1996 . Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance meas-urements in the 0.94-mm region . J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 9345 – 9358 .  

  25. Schmid , B. , Livingston , J. M. , Russell , P. B. , Durkee , P. A. , Jonsson , H. H. , Collins , D. R. , Flagan , R. C. , Seinfeld , J. H. , Gassó , S. , Hegg , D. A , Ostrom , E. , Noone , K. J. , Welton , E. J. , Voss , K. , Gordon , H. R. , Formenti , P. and Andreae , M.O. . 2000 . Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE-2 using airborne sunphoto-meter, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements. Tellus 52B , 568 – 593  

  26. Smirnov , A. , Royer , A. , O'Neill , N. T. and Tarussov , A . 1994 . A study of the link between synoptic air mass type and atmospheric optical parameters. J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 20,967 – 20,982  

  27. Smirnov , A. , Villevalde , Y. , O'Neill , N. T. , Royer , A. and Tarussov , A . 1995 . Aerosol optical depth over the oceans: analysis in terms of synoptic air mass types. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 16,639 – 16,650  

  28. Swietlicki , E. , Zhou , J. , Berg, O. H., Hameri, K., Vakeva, M., Makela, J., Covert, D. S., Dusek, U., Busch, B., Wiedensohler, A. and Stratmann, F. 2000. Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the east-ern Northern Atlantic during ACE-2. Tellus 52B , 201 – 227  

  29. Tang , I. N . 1996 . Chemical and size effects of hygroscopic aerosol on light scattering coefficients . J. Geophys. Res. 101 , 19 , 245-19 , 250 .  

  30. Tanre, D. , Kaufman, Y. J. , Herman, M. and Mattoo, S. 1997. Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using MODIS/EOS spectral radiances. J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 16,971 – 16,988  

  31. Tomasi , C. , Marani , S. , Vitale , V. , Cacciari , A. and Lupi , A . 2000 . Precipitable water evaluations from infrared sun-photometric measurements analyzed using the atmospheric hygrometry technique . Tellus 52B , 734 – 749 .  

  32. Verver , G. , Raes , F. , Vogelenzang , D. and Van Liede-kerke , M . 2000 . The 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2): meteorological and chemical overview . Tellus 52B , 126 – 140 .  

  33. Vitale , V. , Tomasi , C. , Bonafe , U. , Marani , S. , Lupi , A. , Cacciari , A. and Ruggeri , P . 2000 . Spectral measure-ments of aerosol particle extinction in the 0.4-3.71.tm wavelength range, performed at Sagres with the IR-RAD sun-radiometer. Tellus 52B , 716 – 733 .  

  34. Villevalde, Y. V., Smirnov, A. V., O'Neill, N. T., Smy-shlyaev, S. P. and Yakovlev, V. V. 1994 . Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic . J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 20,983 – 20,988  

  35. Von Hoyningen-Huene , W. and Raabe , A . 1987 . Mari-time and continental air mass differences in optical aerosol extinction data . Contrib. Atmos. Phys . 60 , 81 – 87 .  

  36. Wiegner , M. , Quenzel, H., Rabus, D., Volker, W., Volger, P., Ackermann, J., Kahler, C., Fergg, F. and Wildgruber, G. 1995. The Mobile Three-Wavelength Backscatter Lidar of the Meteorological Institute of the University Munich, Lidar and Atmospheric Sens-ing. SPIE 2505 , 2 – 10  

comments powered by Disqus