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Original Research Papers

Marine and land-based influences on atmospheric ammonia and ammonium over Tenerife

Authors:

C. Milford ,

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, Scotland, GB
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M. A. Sutton,

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, Scotland, GB
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A. G. Allen,

Institute of Public and Environmental Health, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, GB
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A. Karlsson,

Institute of Applied Environmental Research, University of Stockholm, Frescativagen 50, S-106 91 Stockholm, SE
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B. M. Davison,

Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, GB
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J. D. James,

Institute of Public and Environmental Health, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, GB
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K. Rosman,

Institute of Applied Environmental Research, University of Stockholm, Frescativagen 50, S-106 91 Stockholm, SE
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R. M. Harrison,

Institute of Public and Environmental Health, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, GB
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J. N. Cape

Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (Edinburgh Research Station), Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, Scotland, GB
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Abstract

Concentrations of gaseous ammonia ([NH3]) and aerosol ammonium ([NH4+]) were measured across Tenerife as part of the ACE-2 “HILLCLOUD” experiment to assess the effect of cloud processing on the marine budget of reduced nitrogen (NHx). Several methods for measuring NH3 were applied: continuous rotating annular denuder, diffusion scrubber and multi-stage filter packs, with the latter also measuring NH4+. The measurement sites were located both upwind and downwind of the hill-cloud. Terrestrial NH3 sources provide a major constraint in addressing marine NHx from land-based studies, and the measurements showed local NH3 emissions from both decomposing potato fields and livestock. [NH3] was correlated between upwind and downwind sites; at high [NH3](>0.5 μg m-3) values were larger downwind than upwind, indicating the importance of island sources. In contrast, at high [NH4+](>0.5 μg m-3), [NH4+] was significantly smaller downwind than upwind, while at low [NH4+](0.2μg m-3), the opposite was observed. The decrease in [NH4+] suggests that cloud processing in high [NH4+] conditions may enhance the evaporation of NH3 from NH4+ in cloud, while NH4+ aerosol formation could occur at low [NH4+]. Analysis of the average diurnal variability in [NH3] and [NH4+] at the different sites suggests that both NH3 emissions and post-cloud evaporation of NH4+ to NH3 are largest during the day, coupled with increased temperatures and reduced relative humidities. Although the marine NH4+ aerosol is mostly present as non-volatile ammonium sulphate, evaporation of NH4+ at high [NH4+] may be explained by in-cloud mixing with nitrate and chloride leading to the production of NH4NO3 and NH4Cl which are subsequently volatilized on leaving the cloud.

How to Cite: Milford, C., Sutton, M.A., Allen, A.G., Karlsson, A., Davison, B.M., James, J.D., Rosman, K., Harrison, R.M. and Cape, J.N., 2000. Marine and land-based influences on atmospheric ammonia and ammonium over Tenerife. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 52(2), pp.273–289. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v52i2.16106
  Published on 01 Jan 2000
 Accepted on 23 Sep 1999            Submitted on 10 Feb 1999

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