Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: MRI measurements of partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Pacific during 1968 to ...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

MRI measurements of partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Pacific during 1968 to 1970: re-evaluation and comparison of data with those of the 1980s and 1990s

Authors:

Hisayuki Yoshikawa Inoue ,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Maso Ishii,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Hidekadzu Matsueda,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Shu Saito,

Geochemical Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, JP
X close

Takashi Midorikawa,

Climate and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, JP
X close

Kazuhiro Nemoto

Climate and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, JP
X close

Abstract

During 1968 to 72, scientists of the Meteorological Research Institute/Japan Meteorological Agency measured CO2 in the surface seawater and overlying air in the Pacific Ocean quasicontinuously to examine CO2 exchange between the sea and the atmosphere. From the data remaining in our laboratory from that time, we re-evaluated the partial pressure of CO2 in surface seawater (pCOs 2) by taking into account pressure broadening effects due to the use of CO2-in-N2 standards, the use of chemical desiccant (Mg(ClO4)2), calibration using background air data, seawater temperature rise between the equilibrator and sea surface, the WMO CO2 mole fraction scale, and differences in pressure during the oceanic CO2 measurements from those of standards and background air in the nondispersive infra-red gas analyser cell. The overall uncertainty of pCOs 2 measurements for the cruises from 1968 to 1970 was estimated to be less than 3.6 ¼atm, which allowed us to evaluate temporal variations in the carbonate system over a few decades, but uncertainty was higher (¾ 10 ¼atm) for the cruise from 1971 to 1972 because of serious malfunctions of the system. The re-evaluated pCOs 2 data from 1968 to 1970 exhibit patterns similar to those observed at the same place and time of year (within 30 days) in 1982/83, 1988, 1995 and 1996, but compared with levels in the 1980s and 1990s the pCOs 2 level was clearly lower in the wide area of the Pacific except south of the Subtropical Front (STF; 47°S) in the Australian sector. The observed pCOs 2 increased by 34 ±5 ¼atm (n = 133) for the area 7°N to 35°N, 138°E to 147°E from February 1969 to February 1995, 29 ±5 ¼atm (n = 247) for the area 9°N to 35°N, 138°E to 165°E from February 1970 to February/March 1996, 26 ±7 ¼atm (n = 224) for the area 29°N to 51°N, 170°W from April 1970 to April 1988, and 41 ±9 ¼atm (n = 165) for the area 10°S to 45°S, 148°E to 166°E from January/February 1969 to January/February 1995. In the northern subtropics (7°N to 35°N, 138°E to 147°E), we estimated the long-term increase (35 ±6 ¼atm, n= 133) after removing seasonal variations that were obtained from the pCOs 2-sea surface temperature (SST) relationship. Observed and seasonally adjusted increases were nearly equal to those of the partial pressure of CO2 in the air (1.4 ¼atm yr-1) over the same time intervals. South of the STF, pCOs 2 increase as found in the subtropics was not detected, mostly due to the large variability of pCOs 2 (250 to 380 ¼atm in 1968/69) on small spatial scales. The average pCOs 2 south of the STF showed large variations on time scales of months and years that affect the estimation of the growth rate of atmospheric CO2.

How to Cite: Inoue, H.Y., Ishii, M., Matsueda, H., Saito, S., Midorikawa, T. and Nemoto, K., 1999. MRI measurements of partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Pacific during 1968 to 1970: re-evaluation and comparison of data with those of the 1980s and 1990s. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51(4), pp.830–848. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v51i4.16492
  Published on 01 Jan 1999
 Accepted on 8 Feb 1999            Submitted on 12 Jun 1998

References

  1. Bingham , F. M. 1992 . Formation and spreading of sub-tropical mode water in the North Pacific . J. Geophys. Res . 97 , 11 , 177-11 , 189 .  

  2. Broecker , W. S. , Peng , T. , Ostlund , G. and Stuiver , M. 1985 . The distribution of bomb radiocarbon in the ocean. J. Geophys. Res . 90 , 6953 – 6970 . Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1996. Climate change 1995. The science of climate change. Contribution of working group I to the second assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds. J. T. Houghton , L. G. Meira Filho , B. A. Callender , N. Harris , A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell ). Cambridge University Press , Cambridge .  

  3. Conway , T. J. , Tans , P. P. , Waterman , L. S. , Thoning , K. W. , Kitzis , D. R. , Masarie , K. A. and Zhang , N. 1994 . Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmo-spheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network . J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 22 , 831-22 , 855 .  

  4. Copin-Montegut , C. 1988 . A new formula for the effect of temperature on the partial pressure of CO2 in sea-water . Mar. Chem . 25 , 29 – 37 .  

  5. Copin-Montegut , C. 1989 . Corrigendum . Mar. Chem . 27 , 143 – 144 .  

  6. Dickson , A. G. 1994 . The Plastic Menagerie: CO2 Teams Compare Seagoing Systems . US JGOFS News . 5 , no. 4 , 5 .  

  7. DOE . 1994 . Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide in sea water; version 2 (eds. A. G. Dickson and C. Goyet ). ORNL/ CDIAC-74. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center , Oak Ridge National Laboratory , Oak Ridge , Tenn .  

  8. Feely , R. A. , Gammon , R. H. , Taft , B. A. , Pullen , P. E. , Waterman , L. S. , Conway , T. J. , Gendron , J. F. and Wisegarver , D. P. 1987 . Distribution of chemical tracers in the eastern equatorial Pacific during and after the 1982-83 El Nirio/Southern Oscillation Event . J. Geophys. Res . 92 , 6545 – 6558 .  

  9. Feely , R. A. , Wanninkhof , R. , Cosca , C. E. , Murphy , P. P. , Lamb , M. F. and Steckey , M. D. 1995 . CO2 distributions in the equatorial Pacific during the 1991-1992 ENSO event . Deep-Sea Res . 42 , 365 – 386 .  

  10. Francey , R. J. , Tans , P. P. , Allison , C. E. , Enting , I. G. , White , J. W. C. and Trolier , M. 1995 . Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982 . Nature 373 , 326 – 330 .  

  11. Fushimi , K. 1987 . Variation of carbon dioxide partial pressure in the western North Pacific surface water during the 1982/83 El Nirio Event . Tellus 39B , 214 – 227 .  

  12. Gordon , A. L. 1972 . Introduction: Physical oceano-graphy of the Southeast Indian Ocean. In: Antarctic Oceanology II, The Australian-New Zealand Sector. Antarctic Res. Ser. 19 (ed. D. E. Hayes ). AGU . Washington, D.C. , 3 – 9 .  

  13. Gordon , L. I. and Jones , L. B. 1973 . The effect of temperature on carbon dioxide partial pressure in seawater . Mar. Chem . 1 , 317 – 322 .  

  14. Goyet , C. and Peltzer , E. T. 1994 . Comparison of the August-September 1991 and 1979 surface partial pressure of CO2 distribution in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean near 150°W . Mar. Chem . 45 , 257 – 266 .  

  15. Goyet , C. , Millero , F. J. , Poisson , A. and Shafer , D. K. 1993 . Temperature dependence of CO2 fugacity in sea-water . Mar. Chem . 44 , 205 – 219 .  

  16. Inoue , H. and Sugimura , Y. 1988 . Distribution and variations of oceanic carbon dioxide in the western North Pacific, eastern Indian, and Southern Ocean south of Australia . Tellus 40B , 308 – 320 .  

  17. Inoue , Y. H. and Sugimura , Y. 1992 . Variations and distributions of CO2 in and over the equatorial Pacific during the period from the 1986/88 El Nirio event to the 1988/89 La Niria event . Tellus 44B , 1 – 22 .  

  18. Inoue , Y. H. , Matsueda , H. , Ishii , M. , Fushimi , K. , Hirota , M. , Asanuma , I. and Takasugi , Y. 1995 . Long-term trend of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters of the western North Pacific, 1984-1993 . Tellus 47B , 391 – 413 .  

  19. Inoue , Y. H. , Ishii , M. , Matsueda , H. , Aoyama , M. and Asanuma , I. 1996 . Changes in longitudinal distribution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the central and western equatorial Pacific, west of 160°W . Geo-phys. Res. Lett . 23 , 1781 – 1784 .  

  20. Inoue , H. Y. 1999 . CO2 exchange between the atmo-sphere and the ocean. Carbon cycle studies of the Meteorological Research Institute since 1968. In: Dynamics and characterization of marine organic matter (eds. N. Handa , E. Tanoue and T. Hama ). TerraPub , Tokyo , in press .  

  21. Kawai , H. 1972 . Hydrography of the Kuroshio Extension . In: Kuroshio (eds. H. Stommel and K. Yoshida ). University of Tokyo Press , Tokyo , 235 – 352 .  

  22. Ishii , M. and Inoue , H. Y. 1995 . Air-sea exchange of CO2 in the central and western equatorial Pacific in 1990 . Tellus 47B , 447 – 460 .  

  23. Keeling , C. D. , Bacastow , R. B. , Carter , A. F. , Piper , S. C. , Whorf , T. P. , Heimann , M. , Mook , W. G. and Roeloffzen , H. 1989 . A three-dimensional mode of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: (1) Analysis of observational data. In: Aspects of climate variability in the Pacific and western Americas (ed. D. Peterson ). AGU Geophysical Monograph. Washington D.C. , 165 – 236 .  

  24. Keeling , C. D. , Whorf , T. P. , Wahlen , M. and van der Plicht , J. 1995 . Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980 . Nature 375 , 666 – 670 .  

  25. Keeling , C. D. , Chin , J. F. S. and Whorf , T. P. 1996 . Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature 382, 146-149. Körtzinger, A., Mintrop, L. and Duinker, J. 1996. The floating dripstone cave: CO2 teams compare underway systems . US JGOFS NEWS 7 , no. 4 , 14 – 15 .  

  26. Millero , F. J. 1995 . Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans . Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta . 59 , 661 – 677 .  

  27. Miyake , Y. and Sugimura , Y. 1969 . Carbon dioxide in the surface water and the atmosphere in the Pacific, the Indian and the Antarctic Ocean areas . Rec. Oceanogr. Wks. Japan 10 , 23 – 28 .  

  28. Miyake , Y. , Sugimura , Y. and Saruhashi , K. 1974 . The carbon dioxide content in the surface water in the Pacific Ocean . Rec. Oceanogr. Wks. Japan 12 , 45 – 52 .  

  29. Murphy , P. P. , Kelly , K. C. , Feely , R. A. and Gammon , R. H. 1994 . Carbon dioxide concentrations in surface water and the atmosphere: PMEL cruises 1986-1989. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL PMEL-101 (NTIS DE96-009659) , 1 – 185 .  

  30. Murphy , P. P. , Harrison , D. E. , Feely , R. A. , Takahasi , T. , Weiss , R. F. and Gammon , R. H. 1998 . Variability of ApCO2 in the subarctic North Pacific. A comparison of results from four expeditions . Tellus 50B , 185 – 204 .  

  31. Oceanographic Data of KH68-4. 1970. Oceanographic Data of KH68-4 (Southern Cross Cruise) of the Hakuho Maru. Ocean Res. Inst. , University of Tokyo , Tokyo .  

  32. Poisson , A. , Metzl , N. , Brunet , C. , Schauer , B. , Bres , B. , Ruiz-Pino , D. and Louanchi , F. 1993 . Variability of sources and sinks of CO2 in the western Indian and Southern Oceans during the year 1991 . J. Geophys. Res . 98 , 22 , 759-22 , 778 .  

  33. Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH68-4 , 1970 (ed. Y. Horibe ). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo , Tokyo .  

  34. Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH70-1 , 1971 (ed. Y. Horibe ). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo , Tokyo .  

  35. Preliminary Report of the Hakuho Maru Cruise KH70-2 , 1971 (ed. Y. Horibe ). Ocean Res. Inst., University of Tokyo , Tokyo .  

  36. Robertson , J. E. and Watson , A. J. 1995 . A summer-time sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean between 88°W and 80°E . Deep-Sea Res . 42 , 1081 – 1091 .  

  37. Roden , G. I. , Taft , B. A. and Ebbesmeyer , C. C. 1982 . Oceanographic aspects of the Emperor seamounts region . J. Geophys. Res . 87 , 9537 – 9552 .  

  38. Stephens , M. P. , Samuels , G. , Olson , D. B. , Fine , R. A. and Takahashi , T. 1995 . Sea—air flux of CO2 in the North Pacific using shipboard and satellite data . J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 13 , 571-13 , 583 .  

  39. Suga , T. and Hanawa , K. 1990 . The mixed-layer climatology in the northwestern part of the North Pacific subtropical gyre and the formation area of Subtropical Mode Water . J. Marine Res . 48 , 543 – 566 .  

  40. Svedrup , H. U. , Johnson , M. W. and Fleming , R. H. 1949 . The oceans. Their physics, chemistry, and general biology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Tanaka, M., Nakazawa, T. and Aoki, S. 1987. Time and space variations of tropospheric carbon dioxide over Japan . Tellus 39B , 3 – 12 .  

  41. Takahashi , T. , Olafsson , J. , Goddard , J. G. , Chipman , D. W. and Sutherland , S. C. 1993 . Seasonal variation of CO2 and nutrients in the high-latitude surface oceans: a comparative study . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7 , 843 – 878 .  

  42. Wanninkhof , R. , Feely , R. A. , Chen , H. , Cosca , C. and Murphy , P. P. 1996 . Surface waterf CO2 in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the 1992-1993 El Nifio . J. Geophys. Res . 101 , 16 , 333-16 , 343 .  

  43. Weiss , R. F. , Jahnke , R. A. and Keeling , C. D. 1982 . Seasonal effects of temperature and salinity on the partial pressure of CO2 in sea water . Nature 300 , 511 – 513 .  

  44. Wessel , P. and Smith , W. H. F. 1991 . Free software helps map and display data . EOS Trans. AGU 72 , 445 – 446 .  

  45. Wong , C. S. , Chan , Y.-H. , Page , J. S. , Smith , G. E. , Bellegay , R. D. and Iseki , K. 1995 . Geographical, seasonal and interannual variations of air—sea CO2 exchange in the subtropical Pacific waters during 1983-1988 (I). Variabilities of oceanic f CO2 . Tellus 47B , 414 – 430 .  

comments powered by Disqus