Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Comparison of methods to determine the anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the Atlantic Ocean

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Comparison of methods to determine the anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the Atlantic Ocean

Authors:

R. Wanninkhof ,

NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149, US
X close

S. C. Doney,

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307, US
X close

T.-H. Peng,

NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL 33149, US
X close

J. L. Bullister,

NOAA Pacific Marine and Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98115, US
X close

K. Lee,

NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Miami, FL 33149; Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, US
X close

R. A. Feely

NOAA Pacific Marine and Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98115, US
X close

Abstract

A comparison of different methods for estimating the anthropogenic CO2 burden in the Atlantic Ocean is performed using referenced, high quality total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) data. The dataset is from two cruises through the center of the basin between 62°N and 43°S in 1991 and 1993. The specific anthropogenic input is determined utilizing empirical procedures as described in Gruber et al. (1996) and Chen and Millero (1979) to correct for remineralization and to estimate preanthropogenic endmembers. These estimates are compared with output of the Princeton ocean biogeochemical model and the NCAR ocean model. The results show that the specific inventories of anthropogenic carbon agree to within 20% but with different storage and uptake patterns. The empirical estimates differ because of assumptions about mixing and winter outcrop endmembers. The same remineralization quotients (Redfield ratios) were used for each method. Varying these constants within the range of literature values causes changes in specific inventories of similar magnitude as the differences observed with different methodologies. Comparison of anthropogenic CO2 uptake and chlorofluorocarbon ages suggests that the anthropogenic CO2 penetration in the North Atlantic is too shallow following the procedure according to Gruber et al. (1996), and too deep using those of Chen and Millero (1979). The results support these previous observations in that the uptake of CO2 in the North Atlantic is disproportionate to its surface area. This is caused by a combination of deep water formation and deep winter mixed layers.

How to Cite: Wanninkhof, R., Doney, S.C., Peng, T.-H., Bullister, J.L., Lee, K. and Feely, R.A., 1999. Comparison of methods to determine the anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the Atlantic Ocean. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51(2), pp.511–530. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v51i2.16335
  Published on 01 Jan 1999
 Accepted on 26 Oct 1998            Submitted on 27 Nov 1997

References

  1. Anderson , L. A. and Sarmiento , J. L . 1994 . Redfield ratios of remineralization determined by nutrient data analysis . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 8 , 65 – 80 .  

  2. Brewer , P. G . 1978 . Direct observation of the oceanic CO, increase . Geophys. Res. Lett . 5 , 997 – 1000 .  

  3. Brewer , P. G. , Wong , G. T. F. , Bacon , M. P. and Spencer , D. W . 1975 . An oceanic calcium problem . Earth Planet. Sci. Lett . 26 , 81 – 87 .  

  4. Broecker , W. S . 1974 . “NO”, a conservative watermass tracer Earth Planet . Sci. Lett. 23 , 100 – 107 .  

  5. Broecker , W. S. and Ostlund , H. G . 1979 . Property distri-butions along the sigma theta = 26.8 isopycnal in the Atlantic Ocean . J. Geophys. Res . 84 , 1145 – 1154 .  

  6. Broecker , W. S. , Takahashi , T. and Peng , T.-H . 1985 . Reconstruction of past atmospheric CO2 contents from the chemistry of the contemporary ocean: an evaluation . US Department of Energy , Washington , DC, 79 pp .  

  7. Bryan , K. and Lewis , L. J . 1979 . A water mass model of the world ocean . J. Geophys. Res . 84 , 2503 – 2517 .  

  8. Castle, R. , Wanninkhof, R. , Doney, S. C. , Bullister, J. , Johns, L. , Feely, R. A. , Huss, B. E. , Millero, F. J. and Lee, K. 1998. Chemical and hydrographic profiles and underway measurements from the North Atlantic during July and August of 1993. NOAA data report ERL AOML-32. Springfield NJ, NOAA/AOML.  

  9. Chen , C.-T . 1993 . The oceanic CO2 sink . Chemosphere 27 , 1041 – 1064 .  

  10. Chen , C.-T. and Millero , F. J . 1979 . Gradual increase of oceanic CO2 . Nature 277 , 205 – 206 .  

  11. Chen , C.-T. A . 1982 . On the distribution of anthropo-genic CO2 in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans . Deep-Sea Res . 29 , 563 – 580 .  

  12. Chen , C.-T. A. , Jones , E. P. and Lin , K . 1990 . Wintertime total carbon dioxide measurements in the Norwegian and Greenland Sea . Deep-Sea Res . 9 , 1455 – 1473 .  

  13. Chen , H. , Wanninkhof, R., Feely, R. A. and Greeley, D. 1995. Measurement of fugacity of carbon dioxide in sub-surface water: an evaluation of a method based on infrared analysis. NOAA technical report ERL AOML-85, 52 pp. NOAA/AOML .  

  14. Chipman , D. W. , Takahashi , T. , Breger , D. and Suther-land , S. C . 1991 . Investigation of carbon dioxide in the South Atlantic and Northern Weddell areas (WOCE section A-12 and A-21) during the METEOR expedition 1115 Jam-March 1990 . Palisades , LDGO of Columbia University .  

  15. Doney , S. C. and Bullister , J. L . 1992 . A chlorofluoro-carbon section in the eastern North Atlantic . Deep-Sea Res . 39 , 1857 – 1883 .  

  16. Doney , S. C. , Jenkins , W. J. and Bullister , J. L . 1997 . A comparison of ocean tracer dating techniques on a meridional section in the eastern North Atlantic . Deep-Sea Res. I 44 , 603 – 626 .  

  17. Forde , E. B. , Hendee , J. C. and Wanninkhof , R . 1994 . Hydrographic, carbon dioxide, nutrient, and productiv-ity measurements from the South Atlantic during July and August of 1991 . NOAA Data Report ERL AOML- 24 . NOAA/AOM L .  

  18. Gent , P. R. and McWilliams , J. C . 1990 . Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models . J. Phys. Oceanogr . 20 , 150 – 155 .  

  19. Glover , D. M. and Brewer , P. G . 1988 . Estimates of wintertime mixed layer nutrient concentrations in the North Atlantic . Deep-Sea Res . 35 , 1525 – 1546 .  

  20. Gruber , N. and Sarmiento , J. L . 1997 . Global patterns of marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11 , 235 – 266 .  

  21. Gruber , N. , Sarmiento , J. L. and Stocker , T. F . 1996 . An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 10 , 809 – 837 .  

  22. Jenkins , W. J . 1988 . The use of anthropogenic tritium and helium-3 to study subtropical gyre ventilation and circulation . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 325 , 43 – 61 .  

  23. Johnson , K. M. , Wills , K. D. , Butler , D. B. , Johnson , W. K. and Wong , C. S . 1993 . Coulometric total carbon dioxide analysis for marine studies: maximizing the performance of an automated continuous gas extrac-tion system and coulometric detector . Mar. Chem . 44 , 167 – 189 .  

  24. Keeling , C. D. and Whorf , T. P . 1994 . Atmospheric CO2 records from the sites in the SIO air sampling network . In: T. A. Boden , D. P. Kaiser , R. J. Sepanski and F. W. Stoss (Ed.), Trends , 1993 : A compendium of data on global change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center , Oak Ridge , pp. 16 – 24 .  

  25. Körtzinger , A. , Mintrop , L. and Duinker , J. C . 1998 . On the penetration of anthropogenic CO2 into the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res . 103 , 18,681 – 18,689  

  26. Large , W. G. , Danabasoglou , G. , Doney , S. C. and McWilliams , J. C . 1997 . Sensitivity to surface forcing and boundary layer mixing in a global ocean model: annual-mean climatology . J. Phys. Oceanogr . 27 , 2418 – 2447  

  27. Large , W. G. , McWilliams , J. C. and Doney , S. C . 1994 . Oceanic vertical mixing: A review and a model with a non-local boundary layer parameterization . Rev. Geo-phys . 32 , 363 – 403 .  

  28. Lee , K. , Millero , F. J. and Wanninkhof , R . 1997 . The carbon dioxide system in the Atlantic Ocean . J. Geo-phys. Res . 102 , 15693 – 15707 .  

  29. Levitus , S . 1982 . Climatological atlas of the world ocean. Washington DC, US Government Printing Office. Lewis, E. and Wallace, D. W. R. 1998. Program developed for CO2 system calculations. Oak Ridge, ORNL/ CDIAC-105, Oak Ridge National Laboratory .  

  30. Martin , J. H. , Knauer , G. H. , Karl , D. M. and Broenkow , W. W . 1987 . VERTEX: carbon cycling in the northeast Pacific . Deep-Sea Res . 34 , 267 – 285 .  

  31. Mehrbach , C. , Culberson , C. H. , Hawley , J. E. and Pytkowicz , R. M . 1973 . Measurement of the apparent dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at atmospheric pressure . Limnol. Oceanogr . 18 , 897 – 907 .  

  32. Millero , F. J . 1995 . Thermodynamics of the carbon diox-ide system in the oceans . Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 , 661 – 677 .  

  33. Millero , F. J. , Lee , K. and Roche , M . 1998 . Distribution of alkalinity in the surface waters of the major oceans . Mar. Chem . 55 , 111 – 130 .  

  34. Minster , J.-F. and Boulahdid , M . 1987 . Redfield ratios along isopycnal surfaces-a complementary study . Deep-Sea Res . 34 , 1981 – 2003 .  

  35. Najjar , R. G. , Sarmiento , J. L. and Toggweiler , J. R . 1992 . Downward transport and fate of organic matter in the ocean: Simulations with a general circulation model . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6 , 45 – 76 .  

  36. Neftel , A. E. , Moor , E. , Oescher , H. and Stauffer , B . 1985 . Evidence from polar ice cores for the increase in atmo-spheric CO2 in the past two centuries . Nature 315 , 45 – 47 .  

  37. Oescher , H. , Siegenthaler , U. , Schotterer , U. and Gugel-man , Q . 1975 . A box diffusion model to study carbon dioxide exchange in nature . Tellus 27 , 168 – 192 .  

  38. Redfield , A. C. , Ketchum , B. H. and Richards , F. A . 1963 . The influence of organisms on the composition of sea-water . In: M. N. Hill (ed.), The Sea, vol . 2 . Wiley , New York .  

  39. Sarmiento , J. L. , Murnane , R. and LeQuéré , C . 1995 . Air-sea CO2 transfer and the carbon budget of the North Atlantic . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B348 , 211 – 219 .  

  40. Sarmiento , J. L. , Orr , J. C. and Siegenthaler , U . 1992 . A perturbation simulation of CO2 uptake in an ocean general circulation model . J. Geophys. Res . 97 , 3621 – 3645 .  

  41. SAVE 1992. Chemical, physical and CTD data report . ODF-232/SIO ref 92-10. San Diego, Scripps .  

  42. Takahashi , T. , Broecker , W. S. and Langer , S . 1985 . Redfield ratio based on chemical data from isopycnal surfaces . J. Geophys. Res . 90 , 6907 – 6924 .  

  43. Takahashi , T. , Takahashi , T. T. and Sutherland , S. C . 1995 . An assessment of the role of the North Atlantic as a CO2 sink . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 348 , 143 – 152 .  

  44. Takahashi , T. , Weiss , R. , Jenkins , W. J. and Smethie , W. M . 1994 . Carbon dioxide and transient tracers in the Western Boundary Undercurrent of the North and South Atlantic ocean . EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. U . 75 , 182 .  

  45. Toggweiler , J. R. , Dixon , K. and Bryan , K . 1989 . Simula-tion of radiocarbon in a coarse-resolution world ocean model. 1. Steady state prebomb distributions . J. Geo-phys. Res . 94 , 8217 – 8242 .  

  46. Tsuchiya , M. , Talley , L. and McCartney , M. S . 1992 . An eastern Atlantic section from Iceland southward across the equator . Deep-Sea Res . 39 , 1885 – 1917 .  

  47. TTO 1986. Transient tracers in the ocean: North Atlantic Study, shipboard physical and chemical data report . SIO ref 86-15; PACODF no. 221, San Diego .  

  48. Wanninkhof , R . 1992 . Relationship between gas exchange and wind speed over the ocean . J. Geophys. Res . 97 , 7373 – 7381 .  

comments powered by Disqus