Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Analysis of the growth of nucleation mode particles observed in Boreal forest

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Analysis of the growth of nucleation mode particles observed in Boreal forest

Authors:

Markku Kulmala,

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI
X close

Anne Toivonen,

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI
X close

Jyrki M. Mäkela,

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI
X close

Ari Laaksonen

University of Kuopio, Department of Applied Physics, FI
X close

Abstract

Aerosol formation and subsequent particle growth in the ambient air have been frequently observed at a boreal forest site, Southern Finland. During a 1-year period we have observed significant aerosol formation on more than 50 days. Submicron aerosol size distributions have been measured using differential mobility analyzing technique. On several days, the growth of nucleation mode particles to Aitken mode has been observed to take place within ˜10 h subsequent to their formation at a rate of a few nm/h. 10 days of the data, representing the particle formation days with a clear subsequent growth, were selected for a closer examination. The growth of nucleation mode particles was analysed with an integral aerosol dynamics model. The model includes photochemical formation of a condensable compound in the gas phase, condensation and particle coagulation. The observed particle growth of the nucleation mode particles can be explained by continuum/transition regime condensation theory. The model gives the gas-phase concentration of the condensing species as a function of time. Since the actual condensing species has not been experimentally identified, the molecular properties of the condensing compound were varied in the model. This sensitivity study revealed that the molecular properties have only a small effect on the daily maximum concentration of the condensing species. We also studied the sensitivity of the results to variations in the source term of the condensable species and to variations in temperature and relative humidity. Accounting for the results of the sensitivity studies, we conclude that the maximum daily concentration of gas-phase, condensing molecules achieved at the site was greater than 107 cm-3, while their saturation vapor density is below 105 cm-3.

How to Cite: Kulmala, M., Toivonen, A., Mäkela, J.M. and Laaksonen, A., 1998. Analysis of the growth of nucleation mode particles observed in Boreal forest. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 50(5), pp.449–462. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v50i5.16229
2
Views
2
Downloads
  Published on 01 Jan 1998
 Accepted on 27 Aug 1998            Submitted on 21 Jul 1997

References

  1. Aalto , P. , Kulmala , M. and Nilsson , E. D. 1995 . Nucle-ation events on the Värriö environmental measure-ment station. J. Aerosol Sc i . 26 , S411—S412 .  

  2. Agarwal , J. K. and Sem , G. J. 1980 . Continuous flow, single-particle-counting condensation nucleus counter. J. Aerosol Sc i . 11 , 343 – 357 .  

  3. Charlson , R. J. and Wigley , T. M. L. 1994 . Sulfate aerosol and climatic change . Scientific American 23 , 48 – 57 .  

  4. DeMore , W. B. , Margitan , J. J. , Molina , M. J. , Watson , R. T. , Golden , D. M. , Hampson , R. F. , Kurylo , M. J. , Howard , C. J. and Ravishakara , A. R. 1985 . Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation no. 7. JPL Publication No. 85-37, NASA.  

  5. Fuchs , N. A. and Sutugin , A. G. 1970 . Highly dispersed aerosols . Ann Arbor Science Publ. Ann Arbor , Michigan .  

  6. Jaecker-Voirol , A. 1988 . PhD thesis, Universite Louis Pasteur , Strasbourg , France .  

  7. Jokinen , V. and Makelä , J. M. 1997 . Closed loop arrange-ment with critical orifice for DMA sheath/excess flow system . J. Aerosol Sci . 28 , 643 – 648 .  

  8. Juozaitis , A. , Trakumas , S. , Girgzdiene , R. , Girgzdys , A. , Sopauskiene , D. and Ulevicius , V. 1996. Investigations of gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere. Atmos. Res . 41 , 183 – 201 .  

  9. Kerminen , V.-M. and Wexler , A. S. 1995 . Growth laws for atmospheric aerosol particles: an examination of bimodality of accumulation mode . Atmos. Environ . 29 , 3263 – 3275 .  

  10. Kesten , J. , Reineking , A. and Porstendorfer , J. 1991 . Calibration of a TSI Model 3025 Ultrafine Condensa-tion Particle Counter . Aerosol Sci. Technol . 15 , 107 – 111 .  

  11. Knutson , E. O. and Whitby , K. T. 1975 . Aerosol classi-fication by electric mobility: apparatus, theory and applications. J. Aerosol Sci . 6 , 443 – 451 .  

  12. Kousaka , Y. , Okuyama , K. and Adachi , M. 1985 . Deter-mination of particle size distribution of ultra-fine aero-sols using a differential mobility analyzer . Aerosol Sci. Technol . 4 , 209 – 225 .  

  13. Kulmala , M. 1990 . Simulating the formation of acid aerosols. In Acidification in Finland (edited by Kauppi , P. , Anttila , P. and Kenttämies , K. ), 95 – 110 . Springer , Berlin .  

  14. Kulmala , M. , Kerminen , V.-M. and Laaksonen , A. 1995 . Simulations on the effect of sulphuric acid formation on atmospheric aerosol concentrations . Atmos. Environ . 29 , 377 – 382 .  

  15. Mattila , T. , Kulmala , M. and Vesala , T. 1997 . On the condensational growth of a multicomponent droplet . J. Aerosol Sci . 28 , 553 – 564 .  

  16. McMurry , P. H. and Wilson , J. C. 1982 . Growth laws for formation of secondary ambient aerosols: implica-tions for chemical conversion mechanisms . Atmos. Environ . 16 , 121 – 134 .  

  17. Mertes , S. , Schröder , F. and Wiedensohler , A. 1995 . The particle detection efficiency curve of the TSI-3010 CPC as a function of temperature difference between satur-ator and condenser . Aerosol Sci. Technol . 23 , 257 – 261 .  

  18. Mäkelä , J. M. , Aalto , P. , Jokinen , V. , Nissinen , A. , Palmroth , S. , Markkanen , T. , Seitsonen , K. , Lihavainen , H. and Kulmala , M. 1997 . Observations of ultrafine aerosol particle formation and growth in boreal forest . Geophys. Res. Lett . 24 , 1219 – 1222 .  

  19. Pirjola , L. and Kulmala , M. 1998 . Modelling the forma-tion of H2504-H20 particles in rural, urban and marine conditions . Atmos. Res . 46 , 321 – 347 .  

  20. Reid , R. C. , Prausnitz , J. M. and Poling , B. E. 1987 . The Properties of gases and liquids , 4th edition . McGraw-Hill , New York .  

  21. Reischl , G. P. 1991 . Measurement of ambient aerosols by the differential mobility analyzer method: concepts and realization criteria for the size range between 2 and 500 nm . Aerosol Sci. Technol . 14 , 5 – 24 .  

  22. Rudolf , R. , Majerowicz , A. , Kulmala , M. , Vesala T. , Viisanen , Y. and Wagner , P. E. 1991. Kinetics of particle growth in supersaturated binary vapor mixtures. J. Aerosol Sci . 22 , 551 – 554 .  

  23. Rudolf , R. 1994 . Experimental investigation on condensa-tion of supersaturated acid-water vapor mixtures by means of laser light scattering in a newly developed expansion chamber. PhD thesis, Department of Experi-mental Physics , University of Vienna , Austria .  

  24. SMEAR Homepage, Internet, “http://honeybee.helsink-i.fi/HYYTIALA/smear” .  

  25. Stolzenburg , M. R. and McMurry , P. H. 1991 . An ultrafine aerosol condensation nucleus counter . Aero-sol Sci. Technol . 14 , 48 – 65 .  

  26. Toivonen , A. 1997 . A study of the growth of nucleation mode particles observed at the Hyytitilti forestry station . MSc thesis (in Finnish). Department of Physics, University of Helsinki , Finland .  

  27. Vesala , T. , Kulmala , M. , Rudolf , R. , Vrtala , A. and Wagner , P. E. 1997 . Models for condensational growth of binary aerosol particles . J. Aerosol Sci . 28 , 565 – 598 .  

  28. Weber , R. J. , McMurry , P. H. , Eisele , F. L. and Tanner , D. J. 1995 . Measurement of expected nucleation pre-cursor species and 3-500-nm diameter particles at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii . J. Atmos. Sci . 52 , 2242 – 2256 .  

  29. Weber , R. J. , Marti , J. J. , McMurry , P. H. , Eisele , F. L. , Tanner , D. J. and Jefferson , A. 1997 . Measurements of new particle formation and ultrafine growth rates at a clean continental site . J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 4375 – 4385 .  

  30. Wiedensohler , A. , Covert , D. S. , Swietlicki , E. , Aalto , P. , Heinzenberg , J. and Leck , C. 1996 . Occurence of an ultrafine particle mode less than 20 nm in diameter in the marine boundary layer during Arctic summer and autumn . Tellus 48B , 213 – 222 .  

  31. Winklmayr , W. , Reischl , G. P. , Lindner , A. O. and Berner , A. 1991. A new electromobility spectrometer for the measurement of aerosol size distributions in the size range from 1 to 1000 nm. J. Aerosol Sci . 22 , 289 – 296 .  

comments powered by Disqus