Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions

Authors:

Xiao Y. Zhang ,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN
X close

R. Arimoto,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN
X close

G. H. Zhu,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN
X close

R. Arimoto,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN; Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center, New Mexico State University, US
X close

G. H. Zhu,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN; Beijing Normal University, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, CN
X close

T. Chen,

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN
X close

G. Y. Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Loess and Geology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CN
X close

Abstract

The mass-particle size distributions (MSDs) of 9 elements in ground-based aerosol samples from dust storm (DS) and non-dust storm (N-DS) periods were determined for 12 sites in 9 major desert regions in northern China. The masses of the 9 elements (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sc, Si, Sr and Ti) in the atmosphere were dominated by local mineral dust that averaged 270 mg m−3, and the MSDs for the elements were approximately log-normal. On the basis of Al data, the < 10 mm particles account for ˜84% of the total dust mass over the deserts. Model-calculated (‘‘100-step’’ method) dry deposition velocities (Vd) for the 9 dust-derived elements during N-DS periods ranged from 4.4 to 6.8 cm s−1, with a median value of 5.6 cm s−1. On the basis of a statistical relationship between D99% (the dust particle diameter corresponding to the uppermost 1% of the cumulative mass distribution) and Vd, one can also predict dry velocities, especially when D99% ranges from 30 to 70 mm. This provides a simple way to reconstruct Vd for dust deposits ( like aeolian loess sediments in the Loess Plateau). The estimated daily dry deposition fluxes were higher during DS vs. N-DS periods, but in most cases, the monthly averaged fluxes were mainly attributable to N-DS dust. Two regions with high dust loading and fluxes are identified: the ‘‘Western High-Dust Desert’’ and the ‘‘Northern High-Dust Desert,’’ with Taklimakan Desert and Badain Juran Desert as their respective centers. These are energetic regions in which desert-air is actively exchanged, and these apparently are the major source areas for Asian dust.

How to Cite: Zhang, X.Y., Arimoto, R., Zhu, G.H., Arimoto, R., Zhu, G.H., Chen, T. and Zhang, G.Y., 1998. Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 50(4), pp.317–330. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v50i4.16131
  Published on 01 Jan 1998
 Accepted on 13 May 1998            Submitted on 26 Jan 1998

References

  1. An , Z. S. and Porter , S. C. 1997 . Millennial-scale climatic oscillations during the last interglaciation in central China . Geology 25 , 603 – 606 .  

  2. An , Z. S. , Kukla , G. , Porter , S. C. and Xiao , Y. L. 1991a . Magnetic susceptibility evidence of monsoon variation on the Loess Plateau of central China during the last 130,000 years . Quaternary Research 36 , 29 – 36 .  

  3. An , Z. S. , Kukla , G. , Porter , S. C. and Xiao , J. L. 1991b . Late Quaternary dust flow on the Chinese Loess Plat-eau . Catena 18 , 125 – 132 .  

  4. An , Z. S. , Liu , T. S. , Lu , Y. C. , Porter , S. C. , Kukla , G. , Wu , X. H. and Hua , Y. M. 1990 . The long-term paleo-monsoon variation recorded by the loess-paleosol sequence in central China . Quaternary International 718 , 91 – 95 .  

  5. Arimoto , R. , Duce , R. A. , Ray , B. J. and Unni , C. K. 1985 . Atmospheric trace elements at Enewetak Atoll, 2, Transport to the ocean by wet and dry deposition . J. Geophys. Res . 90 , 2391 – 2408 .  

  6. Arimoto , R. , Duce , R. A. and Ray , B. J. 1989 . Concentra-tions, sources and air-sea exchange of trace elements in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean. In: Chemical oceanography , vol. 10 (ed. J. P. Riley , R. Chester and R. A. Duce ). Academic, San Diego , Calif ., 107 – 149 .  

  7. Arimoto , R. , Gao , Y. , Duce , R. A. , Lee , D. S. and Chen , L. Q. 1990 . International Conference on Global and regional environmental atmospheric chemistry, Preceedings. (ed. L. Newman , W. Wang and C. S. Kiang ), US Dept. of Energy , 24 – 40 .  

  8. Betzer , P. R. , Carder , K. L , Duce , R. A. , Merrill , J. T. , Tindale , N. W. , Uematsu , M. , Costello , D. K. , Young , R. W. , Feely , R. A. , Breland , J. A. , Bernstein , R. E., and M Greco , A. 1988 . Long-range transport of giant mineral aerosol particles , Nature 336 , 568 – 571 .  

  9. Blank , M. , Leinen , M. and Prospero , J. M. 1985 . Major Asian inputs indicated by the mineralogy of aerosols and sediments in the western North Pacific . Nature 314 , 84 – 86 .  

  10. Bruland , K. Orians , K. J. J. P. Cowen , 1994 . Reactive trace metals in the stratified central North Pacific . Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 , 3171 – 3182 .  

  11. Dulac , F. , Buat-Ménard , P. , Ezat , U. , Melki , S. and Bergametti , G. 1989 . Atmospheric input of trace metals to the western Mediterranean: uncertainties in model-ling dry deposition from cascade impactor data . Tellus 41B , 362 – 378 .  

  12. Grassl , H. 1988 . What are the radiative and climatic consequences of the changing concentration of atmospheric aerosol particles . In: The changing atmosphere (ed. F. S. Rowland and I. S. A. Isaksen ). J. Wiley & Sons , Chichester, England , 187 – 199 .  

  13. GSS . 1984 . Preparation of geochemical standard reference samples (GSR1-6, GSS1-8, GSD9-12) . National Bureau of Chemical Exploration Analysis , Beijing .  

  14. Liu , T. S. et al. (unnamed) 1985. Loess and the environ-ment . Ocean Press , Beijing , 157 – 161 .  

  15. Martin , J. H. and Gordon , R. M. 1988 . Northeast Pacific iron distributions in relation to phytoplankton pro-ductivity . Deep Sea Res . 35 , 177 – 196 .  

  16. Merrill , J. T. , Uematsu , M. , Bleck , R. 1989 . Meteorolo-gical analysis of long range transport of mineral aero-sol over the North Pacific . J. Geophys. Res . 94 , 8584 – 8598 .  

  17. Merrill , J. T. , Arnold , E. , Leinen , M. , Weaver , C. 1994 . Mineralogy of aeolian dust reaching the North Pacific Ocean: 2 . Relationship of mineral assemblages to atmospheric transport patterns. J. Geophys. Res . 99 , 21 , 025-21 , 032 .  

  18. Orians , K. J. and Bruland , K. W. 1985 . Dissolved alumi-num in the central North Pacific . Nature 316 , 427 – 429 .  

  19. Patterson , C. C. and Gillette , D. A. 1977 . Commonalities in measured size distributions for aerosols having a soil-derived component . J. Geophys. Res . 82 , 2074 – 2082 .  

  20. Porter , S. C. , and An , Z. S. 1995 . Correlation between climate events in the North Atlantic and China during the last glaciation . Nature 375 , 305 – 308 .  

  21. Prospero , J. M. 1981 . Eolian transport to the world ocean. In: The sea , ed. C. Emiliani , vol. 7 , pp. 801 – 874 . New York : Wiley .  

  22. Rea , D. K. 1994 . The paleoclimatic record provided by eolian deposition in the deep sea — the geologic his-tory of wind . Rev. Geophysics 32 , 159 – 195 .  

  23. Rea , D. K. , Leinen , M. and Janecek , T. R. 1985 . Geolo-gical approach to the long-term history of atmospheric circulation . Science 227 , 721 – 725 .  

  24. Slinn , S. A. and Slinn , W. G. N. 1981 . Modelling of atmospheric particulate deposition to natural water. In: Atmospheric pollutants in natural waters , (ed. S. J. Eisenreich ). Ann Arbor Science, Michigan, 23 – 53 .  

  25. Taylor , S. R. 1964 . Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table . Geochim. Cosmo-chim. Acta 28 , 1273 – 1285 .  

  26. Uematsu , M. , Duce , R. A. Prospero , J. M. , Chen , L. , Merrill , J. T. and McDonald , R. L. 1985 . Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the North Pacific Ocean . J. Geophys Res . 88 , 5343 – 5352 .  

  27. Zhang , D. E. 1984 . Synoptic-climatic studies of dust fall in China since the historic times . Scientia Sinica 27 , 825 – 836 .  

  28. Zhang , X. Y. , Arimoto , R. , An , Z. S. , Chen , T. , Zhang , G. , Zhu , G. and Wang , X. 1993. Atmospheric trace ele-ments over source regions for Chinese dust: concentrations, sources and atmospheric deposition on the Loess Plateau. Atmospheric Environment 27A , 2051 – 2067 .  

  29. Zhang , X. Y. , Arimoto , R. , An , Z. S. , Chen , T. and Zhang , G. , Ray , B. J. 1994. Late Quaternary records of the atmospheric input of eolian dust to the Center of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary Research 41 , 35 – 43 .  

  30. Zhang , X. Y. , Arimoto , R. and An , Z. S. 1997 . Dust emission from Chinese desert sources linked to variations in atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res . 102 , 28,041 – 28,047 .  

  31. Zhang , X. Y. , Shen , Z. , Zhang , G. , Chen , T. and Liu , H. 1996 . Remote mineral aerosol in westerlies and their contributions to Chinese loess . Science in China (Ser. D) 39 , 67 – 76 .  

  32. Zhang , X. Y. , Arimoto , R. and An , Z. S. 1998 . Glacial and intergalcial patterns for Asian dust transport. Quant. Sci. Res . 17 , in press .  

comments powered by Disqus