Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Optical properties of aerosol mixtures derived from sun-sky radiometry during SAMUM-2

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Optical properties of aerosol mixtures derived from sun-sky radiometry during SAMUM-2

Authors:

C. Toledano ,

Meteorological Institute, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität, DE; Group of Atmospheric Optics, Valladolid University, ES
X close

M. Wiegner,

Meteorological Institute, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität, DE
X close

S. Groß,

Meteorological Institute, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität, DE
X close

V. Freudenthaler,

Meteorological Institute, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität, DE
X close

J. Gasteiger,

Meteorological Institute, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität, DE
X close

D. Müller,

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, DE; Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, KR
X close

T. Müller,

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, DE
X close

A. Schladitz,

Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, DE
X close

B. Weinzierl,

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, DE
X close

B. Torres,

Group of Atmospheric Optics, Valladolid University
X close

N. T. O’neill

CARTEL, Université de Sherbrooke, CA
X close

Abstract

The SAMUM-2 experiment took place in the Cape Verde is lands in January–February 2008. The colocated ground-based and airborne instruments allow the study of desert dust optical and microphysical properties in a closure experiment. The Meteorological Institute of the University of Munich deployed one sun-sky photometer and two tropospheric lidar systems. A travelling AERONET-Cimel sun-sky radiometer was also deployed. During the measurement period the aerosol scenario over Cape Verde mostly consisted of a dust layer below 2 km and a smoke-dust layer above 2–4 km a.s.l. The Saharan dust arrived at the site from the NE, whereas the smoke originated in the African equatorial region. This paper describes the main results of the Sun photometer observations, supported by lidar information. An analysis of the variations in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 340–1550 nm, the Ångström exponent, volume size distributions and single scattering albedo is presented. The aerosol mixtures are analysed by means of the fine mode fraction of the AOD provided by the sun-sky inversion data and the Spectral Deconvolution Algorithm. The mean AOD (500 nm) was 0.31, with associated low ångström exponent of 0.46. Several types of events were detected within the data set, with prevalence of dust or mixtures as characterized by the Ångstr¨om exponents of extinction and absorption and the fine mode fraction. Aerosol properties derived from sunphotometry were compared to in situ measurements of size distribution, effective radius and single scattering albedo.

How to Cite: Toledano, C., Wiegner, M., Groß, S., Freudenthaler, V., Gasteiger, J., Müller, D., Müller, T., Schladitz, A., Weinzierl, B., Torres, B. and O’neill, N.T., 2011. Optical properties of aerosol mixtures derived from sun-sky radiometry during SAMUM-2. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 63(4), pp.635–648. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00573.x
  Published on 01 Jan 2011
 Accepted on 10 Jun 2011            Submitted on 7 Nov 2010

References

  1. Ansmann , A. , Petzold , A. , Kandler , K. , Tegen , I. , Wendisch , M. and co-authors . 2011 . Saharan Mineral Dust Experiments SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2: what have we learned? Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  2. Bergstrom , R. W. , Pilewskie , P. , Russell , P. B. , Redemann , J. , Bond , T. C. and co-authors . 2007 . Spectral absorption properties of atmospheric aerosols . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 7 ( 23 ), 5937 - 5943 .  

  3. Bohren , C. F. and Huffman , D. R . 1983 . Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles . Wiley and Sons , New York , 530 pp .  

  4. Dubovilc , O. , Holben , B. , Eck , T. , Smirnov , A. , Kaufman , Y. and co-authors . 2002 . Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations. J. Atmo. Sci . 59 , 590 - 608 .  

  5. Dubovilc , O. , Sinyuk , A. , Lapyonok , T. , Holben , B. N. , Mishchenko , M. and co-authors . 2006 . Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust. J. Geophys. Res . 111 , D11208.  

  6. Dubovilc , O. , Smirnov , A. , Holben , B. N. , King , M. D. , Kaufman , Y. J. and co-authors . 2000 . Accuracy assessments of aerosol opti-cal properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements. J. Geophys. Res . 105 , 9791 - 9806 .  

  7. Eck , T. F. , Holben , B. N. , Siniuk , A. , Pinker , R. T. , Goloub , P. and co-authors . 2010 . Climatological aspects of the optical properties of fine/coarse mode aerosol mixtures. J. Geophys. Res . 115 , D19205.  

  8. Eck , T. , Holben , B. , Reid , J. , Dubovilc , O. , Smirnov , A. and co-authors . 1999 . The wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban and desert dust aerosols. J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 31,333 - 31,350 .  

  9. Freudenthaler , V. , Esselborn , M. , Wiegner , M. , Heese , B. , Tesche , M. and co-authors . 2009 . Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus 61B , 165 - 179 .  

  10. Gasteiger , J. , Wiegner , M. , Gross , S. , Freudenthaler , V. , Toledano , C. and co-authors . 2011 . Modeling lidar-relevant optical properties of complex mineral dust aerosols. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  11. Goudie , A. and Middleton , N . 2001 . Saharan dust storms: nature and consequences . Earth-Sci. Rev . 56 , 179 – 204 .  

  12. Groß , S. , Freudenthaler , V. , Wiegner , M. , Gei , A. , Tesche , M. and co-authors . 2011a . Characterization of the planetary boundary layer dur-ing SAMUM-2 by means of lidar measurements. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  13. Groß , S. , Tesche , M. , Freudenthaler , V , Toledano , C. , Wiegner , M. and co-authors . 2011b . Characterization of Saharan dust, marine aerosols and a mixture of biomass burning aerosols and dust by means of multi-wavelength depolarization- and Raman-measurements during SAMUM 2. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  14. Hansen , J. and Travis , L . 1974 . Light scattering in planetary atmospheres . Space Sci. Rev . 16 , 527 – 610 .  

  15. Haywood , J. , Francis , P. , Dubovik , O. , Glew , M. and Holben , B . 2003 . Comparison of aerosol size distributions, radiative properties, and optical depths determined by aircraft observations and Sun photometers during SAFARI 2000 . J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( D13 ), 8471 .  

  16. Haywood , J. M. , Pelon , J. , Formenti , R , Bharmal , N. , Brooks , M. and co-authors . 2008 . Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observing period-O. J. Geophys. Res . 113 , DO0C17.  

  17. Heintzenberg , J . 2009 . The SAMUM-1 experiment over Southern Mo-rocco: overview and introduction . Tellus 61B , 2 – 11 .  

  18. Hess , M. , Koepke , P. and Schuh , I . 1998 . Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC . Bull. Am. Met. Soc . 79 ( 5 ), 831 – 844 .  

  19. Holben , B. , Eck , T. , Slutsker , I. , Tanre , D. , Buis , J. and co-authors . 1998 . AERONET- a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization. Remote Sens. Environ . 66 , 1 - 16 .  

  20. Holben , B. , Tanre , D. , Smirnov , A. , Eck , T. , Slutsker , I. and co-authors . 2001 . An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET. J. Geophys. Res . 106 , 12067 - 12097 .  

  21. Johnson , B. T. , Osborne , S. R. and Haywood , J. M . 2008 . Aircraft measurements of biomass-burning aerosols over West Africa during DABEX. J. Geophys. Res . 113 , DO0C06.  

  22. Kandler , K. , Lieke , K. , Benker , N. , Emmel , C. , Kiipper , M. and co-authors . 2011a . Electron microscopy of particles collected at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral dust experiment: particle chemistry, shape, mixing state and complex refractive index. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  23. Kandler , K. , Schiitz , L. , Jäckel , S. , Lieke , K. , Emmel , C. and co-authors . 2011b . Ground-based off-line aerosol measurements at Praia, Cape Verde, during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment: microphysical properties and mineralogy. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  24. Kaufman , Y. J. , Koren , I. , Remer , L. A. , Tanre , D. , Ginoux , P. and co-authors . 2005 . Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD'S) space-craft over the Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res . 110 , D10512.  

  25. Knippertz , P. , Tesche , M. , Heinold , B. , Kandler , K. , Toledano , C. and co-authors . 2011 . Dust mobilization and aerosol transport from West Africa to Cape Verde—a meteorological overview of SAMUM-2. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  26. Li , Z. , Blarel , L. , Podvin , T. , Goloub , R , Buis , J. P. and co-authors . 2008 . Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for OMEL Sun-sky radiometers . Appl. Opt . 47 ( 10 ), 1368 - 1377 .  

  27. Lieke , K. , Kandler , K. , Emmel , C. , Petzold , A. , Weinzierl , B. and co-authors . 2011 . Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde islands. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  28. Liu , D. , Wang , Z. , Liu , Z. , Winker , D. and Trepte , C . 2008 . A height resolved global view of dust aerosols from the first year CALIPSO lidar measurements . J. Geophys. Res . 113 , D16214 .  

  29. McConnell , C. L. , Highwood , E. J. , Coe , H. , Formenti , P. , Anderson , B. and co-authors . 2008 . Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: results from the Dust Outflow and Deposition to the Ocean (DODO) experiment. J. Geophys. Res . 113 , D14505.  

  30. Mishchenlco , M. I. , Travis , L. D. , Kahn , R. A. and West , R. A . 1997 . Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids . J. Geo-phys. Res. 102(D14) , 16 831-16 847 .  

  31. Muller , D. , Ansmann , A. , Freudenthaler , V. , Kandler , K. , Toledano , C. and co-authors . 2010a . Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun photometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SA-MUM 2006: shape-dependent particle properties. J. Geophys. Res . 115 , D11207.  

  32. Muller , D. , Weinzierl , B. , Petzold , A. , Kandler , K. , Ansmann , A. and co-authors . 2010b . Mineral dust observed with AERONET Sun pho-tometer, Raman lidar, and in situ instruments during SAMUM 2006: shape-independent particle properties. J. Geophys. Res . 115 , D07202.  

  33. Muller , T. , Schladitz , A. , Massling , A. , Kaaden , N. , Kandler , K. and co-authors . 2009 . Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1. Tellus 61B , 79 - 95 .  

  34. Muller , T. , Schladitz , A. and Wiedensohler , A . 2011 . Spectral particle absorption coefficients, single scattering albedos, and imaginary parts of refractive indices from ground based in-situ measurements at Cape Verde Island during SAMUM-2. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  35. Myhre , G . 2009 . Consistency between satellite-derived and modeled estimates of the direct aerosol effect . Science 325 , 187 – 190 .  

  36. Nalcajima , T. , Tonna , G. , Rao , R. , Boi , P. , Kaufman , Y . 1996 . Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particu-late polydispersions . AppL Opt . 35 , 15 , 2672 – 2686 .  

  37. Olmo , F. , Quirantes , A. , Lara , V. , Lyamani , H. and Alados-Arboledas , L . 2008 . Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles . J. Quantit. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109 , 1504 – 1516 .  

  38. O'Neill , N. T. , Eck , T. F. , Reid , J. S. , Smirnov , A. and Pancrati , O . 2008 . Coarse mode optical information retrievable using ultraviolet to short-wave infrared Sun photometry: application to United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment data . J. Geophys. Res . 113 , D05212 .  

  39. O'Neill , N. T. , Eck , T. F. , Smirnov , A. , Holben , B. N. and Thulasiraman , S . 2003 . Spectral discrimination of coarse and fine mode optical depth . J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( 017 ), 45 – 59 .  

  40. O'Neill , N. T. , Thulasiraman , S. , Eck , T. F. and Reid , J. S . 2005 . Robust optical features of fine mode size distributions: application to the Quebec smoke event of 2002 . J. Geophys. Res . 110 , D11207 .  

  41. Otto , S. , Bierwirth , E. , Weinzierl , B. , Kandler , K. , Esselborn , M. and co-authors . 2009 . Solar radiative effects of a Saharan dust plume observed during SAMUM assuming spheroidal model particles. Tellus 61B , 270 - 296 .  

  42. Pelon , J. , Mallet , M. , Mariscal , A. , Goloub , P. , Tanre , D. and co-authors . 2008 . Microlidar observations of biomass burning aerosol over Djougou (Benin) during African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observation Period 0: Dust and Biomass-Burning Experiment. J. Geophys. Res . 113 , DO0C18.  

  43. Petzold , A. , Rasp , K. , Weinzierl , B. , Esselborn , M. , Hamburger , T. and co-authors . 2009 . Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006. Tellus 61B , 118 - 130 .  

  44. Pinker , R. T. , Liu , H. , Osborne , S. R. and Akoshile , C . 2010 . Radiative effects of aerosols in sub-Sahel Africa: dust and biomass burning . J. Geophys. Res . 115 , D15205 .  

  45. Prospero , J. M. , Ginoux , P. , Tones , O. , Nicholson , S. E. and Gill , T. E . 2002 . Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the NIMBUS 7 Total Ozone Map-ping Spectrometer (TOMS) absorbing aerosol product . Rev. Geophys . 40 ( 1 ), 1002 .  

  46. Randles , C. A. and Ramaswamy , V . 2010 . Direct and semi-direct impacts of absorbing biomass burning aerosol on the climate of southern Africa: a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory GCM sensitivity study . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 10 , 9819 – 9831 .  

  47. Reid , J. S. , Kinney , J. E. , Westphal , D. L. , Holben , B. N. , Welton , E. J. and co-authors . 2003 . Analysis of measurements of Saharan dust by airborne and ground-based remote sensing methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE). J. Geophys. Res . 108 , 8586 .  

  48. Remer , L. A. and Kaufman , Y. J . 2006 . Aerosol direct radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere over cloud free ocean derived from four years of MODIS data . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 6 , 237 – 253 .  

  49. Russell , P. B. , Bergstrom , R. W. , Shinozulca , Y. , Clarke , A. D. , De-Carlo , P. F. and co-authors . 2010 . Absorption Angstrom Exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 10 , 3 , 1155-1169 .  

  50. Schladitz , A. , Muller , T. , Nowak , A. , Kandler , K. , Lieke , K. and co-authors . 2011 . In situ aerosol characterization at Cape Verde. Part 1: particle number size distributions, hygroscopic growth and state of mixing of the marine and Saharan dust aerosol. Tellus 63B, this issue.  

  51. Schladitz , A. , Muller , T. , Kaaden , N. , Massling , A. , Kandler , K. and co-authors . 2009 . In situ measurements of Optical Properties at Tinfou (Morocco) during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment SAMUM 2006. Tellus 61B , 64 - 78 .  

  52. Smirnov , A. , Holben , B. , Kaufman , Y. , Dubovik , O. , Eck , T. and co-authors . 2002 . Optical properties of atmospheric aerosol in maritime environments. J. Atmos. Sci . 59 , 501 - 523 .  

  53. Solomon , S. , Qin , D. , Manning , M. , Alley , R. , Berntsen , T. and co-authors . 2007 . Cambridge University Press , New York, USA , chapter Technical Summary Contribution of Working Group 1 to the 4th As-sessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , p. 21 - 87 .  

  54. Tanre , D. , Haywood , J. , Pelon , J. , Leon , J. , Chatenet , B. and co-authors . 2003 . Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative im-pact: overview of the Saharan Dust Experiment (SHADE). J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( 018 ), 8574.  

  55. Toledano , C. , Wiegner , M. , Garhammer , M. , Seefeldner , M. , Gasteiger , J. and co-authors . 2009 . Spectral aerosol optical depth characterization of desert dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus 61B , 216 - 228 .  

  56. von Hoyningen-Huene , W. , Dinter , T. , Kokhanovsky , A. , Burrows , J. and M., D. 2009 . Measurements of desert dust optical characteristic at Porte au Sahara during SAMUM . Tellus 61B , 206 – 215 .  

  57. Weinzierl , B. , Petzold , A. , Esselborn , M. , Wirth , M. , Rasp , K. and co-authors . 2009 . Airborne measurements of dust layer properties, parti-cle size distribution and mixing state of Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006. Tellus 61B , 96 - 117 .  

  58. Weinzierl , B. , Sauer , D. , Esselborn , M. , Petzold , A. , Veira , A. and co-authors . 2011 . Microphysical and optical properties of dust and tropical biomass burning aerosol layers in the Cape Verde region-an overview of the airborne in-situ and lidar measurements during SAMUM-2. Tellus 63 , this issue.  

comments powered by Disqus