Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Factors influencing the acid–base (pH) balance in the Baltic Sea: a sensitivity analysis

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Factors influencing the acid–base (pH) balance in the Baltic Sea: a sensitivity analysis

Authors:

Anders Omstedt ,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE
X close

Moa Edman,

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, SE
X close

Leif G. Anderson,

Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, SE
X close

Hjalmar Laudon

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE
X close

Abstract

Using calculations based on the marine carbon system and on modelling, the sensitivity of Baltic Sea surface pH was examined. Transient long-term calculations demonstrated that the marine carbon system adjusts to lateral boundary conditions within some decades, as does salinity. Climate changes in temperature or salinity will only marginally affect the acid–base (pH) balance. Wetter or dryer climate will also play a minor role in the pH balance. The direct effect on seawater pH of acid precipitation over the Baltic Sea surface was demonstrated to be small. Acidification due to river transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the marine system seems marginal although mineralization of terrestrial DOC may cause extra marine acidification, but the effect has yet to be quantified. Increased nutrient load may increase the amplitude in the pH seasonal cycle and increase the acidification during winter time. Fossil fuel burning is likely to have both a direct and indirect effect through increased CO2 levels, altering seawater pH as well as changing the river chemistry. This may severely threaten some species in the Baltic Sea, particularly in the Northern Baltic.

How to Cite: Omstedt, A., Edman, M., Anderson, L.G. and Laudon, H., 2010. Factors influencing the acid–base (pH) balance in the Baltic Sea: a sensitivity analysis. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 62(4), pp.280–295. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00463.x
3
Views
2
Downloads
  Published on 01 Jan 2010
 Accepted on 17 May 2010            Submitted on 4 Dec 2009

References

  1. Algesten , G. , Wilmer , J. , Sobek , S. , Tranvik , L. J. and Jansson , M . 2004. Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: indications of marine net heterotrophy. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18 ( 4 ), GB4021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002230 .  

  2. Algesten , G. , Brydsten , L. , Jonsson , P. , Kortelainen , P. , Löfgren , S. and co-authors. 2006. Organic carbon budget for the Gulf of Bothnia. J. Mar SysL 63, 155 – 161.  

  3. Anderson , P. (Ed.) , Hhkansson , B. , Hilcansson , J. , Sahlsten , E. , Havenhand , J. , Thorndyke , M. , and Dupont , S. (Co-authors). 2008. Marine acidification—on effects and monitoring of marine acidification in the seas surrounding Sweden. SMHI Oceanography 92, 61pp. SMHI, Norrkoping, Sweden.  

  4. Andersson , A. J. , Mackenzie , F. T. and Lerman , A . 2006. Coastal ocean CO2—carbonic acid—carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 20, GB1S92, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GB002506 .  

  5. Astrom , M . 2005 . pH of streams in western Finland—a perspective from the Middle Ages into the mid 21st century. Agric . Food Sc i . 14 , 5 – 13 .  

  6. BACC Author Team . 2008. Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Series: Regional Climate Studies. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, ISBN: 978-3-540-72785-9.  

  7. Berggren , M. , Laudon , H. and Jansson , M . 2007 . Growth and respiration of freshwater bacteria on organic carbon from dif-ferent terrestrial sources . Global Biogeochem. Cycles 21 ( 4 ), https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002844 .  

  8. Bergstrom , S. and Carlsson , B . 1994 . River runoff to the Baltic Sea: 1950-1990 . AMBIO 23 ( 4-5 ), 280 – 287 .  

  9. Borges , A. V. and Gypens , N . 2010 . Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidifi-cation . Limnol. Oceanogr . 55 , 346 – 353 .  

  10. Borges A. V. and Frankignoulle , M . 1999 . Daily and seasonal variations of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface seawater along Belgian and southern Dutch coastal areas . J. Mar SysL 19 ( 4 ), 251 – 266 .  

  11. Buffam , I. , Laudon , H. , Temnerud , J. , Morth , C. M. and Bishop , K . 2007 . Landscape-scale variability of acidity and dissolved organic carbon during spring flood in a boreal stream network . J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci . 112 , G01022 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000218 .  

  12. Dickson , A. G . 1990 . Thermodynamics of the dissociation of boric acid in synthetic seawater from 273.15 to 318.15 K . Deep-Sea Res . 37 , 755 – 766 .  

  13. Dickson , A. G. , Sabine , C. L. , and Christian , J. R. (Eds.) 2007. Guide to Best Practises for Ocean CO2 Measurements. PICES Special Publi-cation 3, North Pacific Marine Science Organization, Sidney, Canada, 191 pp.  

  14. Doney , S. C. , Mahoward , N. , Lima , I. , Feely , R. A , Mackenzie , E T. and co-authors. 2007. Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification and the inorganic carbon system. PNAS 104(37), 14580 – 14585.  

  15. Doney , S. C. , Fabry , V. J. , Feely , R. A. and Kleypas , J. A . 2009 . Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem . Annu. Rev. Mar Sci . 1 , 169 – 192 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834 .  

  16. Dyrssen , D . 1993. The Baltic-Kattegat-Skagerrak Estuarine System. Es-tuaries 16(3A), 446 – 452.  

  17. Erilcsson , C. , Omstedt , A. , Overland , J. E. , Percival , D. B. and Mofjeld , H . 0. 2007. Characterizing the European subarctic winter climate since 1500 using ice, temperature, and atmospheric circulation time series. J. Climate 20, 5316-5334, https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1461.1 .  

  18. Erlandsson , M. , Buffam , I. , Fölster , J. , Laudon , H. , Temnerud , J. and co-authors. 2008a. 35 years of synchrony in riverine organic matter concentrations explained by variation in flow and sulphate. Global Change Biol., https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01551 .  

  19. Erlandsson , M. , Fölster , J. , Laudon , H. , Weyhenmeyer , G. A. and Bishop , K . 2008b . Natural variability in lake pH on seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales: implications for assessment of human impact . Environ. Sci. TechnoL 42 , 5594 – 5599 .  

  20. Finer , L. , Kortelainen , P. , Mattsson , T. , Ahtiainen , M. , Kubin , E. and co-authors. 2004. Sulphate and base cation concentrations and export in streams from unmanaged forested catchments in Finland. Forest EcoL Manag. 195, 115 – 128.  

  21. Fölster , J. and Wilander , A . 2002 . Recovery from acidification in Swedish forest streams . Environ. PolluL 117 , 379 – 389 .  

  22. Gruber , N . 2009 . Fickle trends in the ocean . Nature 458 , 155 – 156 .  

  23. Gypens , N. , Borges , A. V. and Lancelot , C . 2009 . Effect of eutrophication on air-sea CO2 fluxes in the coastal Southern North Sea: a model study of the past 50 years . Global Change Biol . 15 ( 4 ), 1040 – 1056 .  

  24. Hansson , D. and Omstedt , A . 2008 . Modelling the Baltic Sea ocean climate on centennial time scales: temperature and sea ice . Climate Dyn ., 30 , 763 – 778 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-007-0321-2 .  

  25. Hansson , D. , Erilcsson , C. , Omstedt , A. and Chen , D . 2010. Re-construction of river runoff to the Baltic Sea. Int. J. ClimatoL, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2097 .  

  26. Hansson , I . 1973 . A new set of acidity constants for carbonic acid and boric acid in sea water . Deep-Sea Res . 20 , 461 – 478 .  

  27. Hjalmarsson , S. , Wesslander , K. , Anderson , L. G. , Omstedt , A. , Perttild , M. and co-authors. 2008. Distribution, long-term develop-ment and mass balance calculations of total alkalinity in the Baltic Sea. Continental Shelf Res. 28(4-5), 593 – 601.  

  28. Hruska , J. , Köhler , S. , Laudon , H. and Bishop , K . 2003 . Is a universal model of organic acidity possible: Comparison of the acid/base prop-erties of dissolved organic carbon in the boreal and temperate zones . Environ. Sci. TechnoL 37 , 1726 – 1730 .  

  29. Humborg , C. , Mirth , C-M. , Sundbom , M. , Borg , H. , Blenckner , T. and co-authors. 2010. CO2 supersaturation along the aquatic conduit in Swedish watersheds as constrained by terrestrial respiration, aquatic respiration and weathering. Global Change Biol. 16, 1966-1978, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02092.x .  

  30. IPCC . 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Con-tribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds S. Solomom , D. Qin , M. Manning , Z. Chen , M. Marquis , K. B. Averyt , M. Tignor and H. L. Millers ). Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York , 996 pp.  

  31. Jones , J. B. , Jr. , Stanley , E. H. and Mulholland , P. J . 2003 . Long-term decline in carbon dioxide supersaturation in rivers across the contiguous United States . Geophys. Res. Lett . 30 ( 10 ), 1495 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017056 .  

  32. Karlsson , J. , Bystrom , P. , Ask , J. , Ask , P. , Persson , L. and Jansson , M . 2009 . Light limitation of nutrient-poor lake ecosystems . Nature 460 , 506–U80 .  

  33. Köhler , S. , Laudon , H. , Wilander , A. and Bishop , K . 2000 . Estimating organic acid dissociation in natural surface waters using total alkalin-ity and TOC . Water Res . 34 , 1425 – 1434 .  

  34. Laudon , H. and Bishop , K. 2002. The Rapid and Extensive Re-covery from Episodic Acidification in Northern Sweden Due to Declines in S042- Deposition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 ( 1594 ), https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014211 .  

  35. Laudon , H. and Buffam , I . 2008 . Impact of changing DOC concentra-tions on the potential distribution of acid sensitive biota in a boreal stream network . HydroL Earth SysL Sci . 12 , 425 – 435 .  

  36. Laudon , H. , Westling , O. , Löfgren , S. and Bishop , K. 2001. Modelling preindustrial ANC and pH during spring flood in Northern Sweden. Biogeochemistiy 54 , 171 – 195.  

  37. Lepisto , A. , Kortelainen , P. and Mattsson , T . 2008. Increased organic C and N leaching in a northern boreal river basin in Finland. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22, GB3029, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003175 .  

  38. Leppäranta , M. and Myrberg , K . 2009. Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea. Springer-Praxis books in Geophysical Sciences. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, ISBN 978-3-540-79702-9.  

  39. Millero , F. J. , Graham , T. B. , Huang , F. , Bustos-Serrano , H. and Pierrot , D . 2006 . Dissociation constants of carbonic acid in sea water as a function of salinity and temperature . Mar Chem . 100 , 80 – 94 .  

  40. Monteith , D. T. , Stoddard , J. L. , Evans , C. D. , de Wit , H. A. , Forsius , M. and co-authors. 2007. Dissolved organic carbon trends result-ing from changes in atmospheric deposition chemistry. Nature 450, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06316 .  

  41. Mucci , A . 1983 . The solubility of calcite and aragonite in seawater at various salinities, temperatures, and one atmosphere total pressure . Am. J. Sci . 283 ( 7 ), 780 – 799 .  

  42. Mylona , S . 1996 . Sulphur dioxide emissions in Europe 1880-1991 and their effect on sulphur concentrations and depositions . Taus B 48 , 662 – 689 .  

  43. Mörth , C. M. , Laudon , H. , Mellqvist , E. , Torssander , P. and Giesler , R . 2008. Sources of stream water sulfate during the spring snowmelt in boreal streams: evidence from stable 334S isotope measurements. J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeosci. 113, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000457 .  

  44. Omstedt , A. and Hansson , D . 2006a . The Baltic Sea ocean cli-mate system memory and response to changes in the water and heat balance components . Continental Shelf Res . 26 , 236 – 251 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2005.11.003 .  

  45. Omstedt , A. and Hansson , D . 2006b . Erratum to: 'The Baltic Sea ocean climate system memory and response to changes in the water and heat balance components' . Continental Shelf Res . 26 , 1685 – 1687 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2006.05.011 .  

  46. Omstedt , A. , Gustafsson , E. and Wesslander , K . 2009 . Modelling the uptake and release of carbon dioxide in the Baltic Sea surface water . Continental Shelf Res . 29 , 870 – 885 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2009.01.006 .  

  47. Oquist , M. , Wallin , M. , Seibert , J. , Bishop , J. and Laudon , H . 2009. DIC export across the soil/stream interface and its fate in a boreal head water stream. Environ. Sci. TechnoL 43, https://doi.org/10.1021/es900416h .  

  48. österholm , P. and Astriim , M . 2002 . Spatial trends and losses of major and trace elements in agricultural acid sulphate soils distributed in the artificially drained Rintala area, W . Finland. Geochemistry 17 ( 9 ), 1209 – 1218 .  

  49. Raymond , P. A. , Oh , N. H. , Turner , R. E. and Broussard , W . 2008 . Anthropogenically enhanced fluxes of water and carbon from the Mississippi River . Nature 451 , 449 – 452 .  

  50. Sandberg , J. , Andersson , A. , Johansson , S. and Wilcner , J . 2004 . Pelagic food web structure and carbon budget in the northern Baltic Sea: potential importance of terrigenous carbon . Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser . 268 , 13 – 29 .  

  51. Savchuk , O. , Wulff , F. , Hille , S. , Humborg , C. and Pollehne , F. 2008. The Baltic Sea a century ago: a reconstruction from model simulations, verified by observations. J. Mar SysL 74 ( 2008 ), 485 – 494.  

  52. Shafer , M. M. , Overdier , J. T. , Hurley , J. P. , Armstrong , D. and Webb , D. 1997. The influence of dissolved organic carbon, suspended particu-lates, and hydrology on the concentration, partitioning and variability of trace metals in two contrasting Wisconsin watersheds (USA). Chem. Geol. 136, 71 – 97.  

  53. Siegismund , F. and Schrum , C . 2001 . Decadal changes in the wind forcing over the North Sea . Climate Res . 18 , 39 – 45 .  

  54. Schneider , B. , Kaitala , S. & Manula , P. 2006. Identification and quan-tification of plankton bloom events in the Baltic Sea by continuous pCO2 and chlorophyll a measurements on a cargo ship. J Mar SysL 59 , 238 – 248.  

  55. Sobek , S. , Algesten , G. , Bergstrom , A. K. , Jansson , M. and Tranvik , L. J . 2003 . The catchment and climate regulation of pC0(2) in boreal lakes . Global Change Biol . 9 , 630 – 641 .  

  56. Teodoru , C. , del Giorgio , P. A. and Prairie , Y. T. 2009. Patterns in pCO2 in boreal streams and rivers of northern Quebec, Canada, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 23, GB2012 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003404 .  

  57. Tyrell , T. , Schneider , B. , Charalampopoulou , A. and Riebesell , U . 2007 . Coccolithophores and calcite saturation state in the Baltic and Black Seas . Biogeosci. Discuss . 4 , 3581 – 3605 .  

  58. van Dongen , B. E. , Zencak , Z. and Gustafsson , O . 2008 . Differential transport and degradation of bulk organic carbon and specific terres-trial biomarkers in the surface waters of a sub-arctic brackish bay mixing . Mar Chem . 112 , 203 – 214 .  

  59. Vuorenmaa , J. , Forsius , M. and Mannio , J . 2006 . Increasing trends of total organic carbon concentrations in small forest lakes in Finland from 1987 to 2003 . Sci. Total Environ . 365 , 47 – 65 .  

  60. Vuorenmaa , J. and Forsius , M . 2008 . Recovery of acidified Finnish lakes: trends, patterns and dependence of catchment characteristics . HydroL Earth SysL Sci . 12 , 465 – 478 .  

  61. Weiss , R. F . 1974 . Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas . Mar Chem . 2 , 203 – 215 .  

  62. Winsor , P. , Rodhe , J. and Omstedt , A. 2001. Baltic Sea ocean climate: an analysis of 100 yr of hydrographic data with focus on the freshwater budget. Climate Res. 18 , 5 – 15.  

  63. Winsor , R , Rodhe , J. and Omstedt , A . 2003 . Erratum: Baltic Sea ocean climate: an analysis of 100 yr of hydrographical data with focus on the freshwater budget. Climate Res. 18 , 5 – 15 ( 2001. Climate Research 25 , 183 ).  

  64. Wootton , T. J. , Pfister , C. A. and Forester , J. D . 2008 . Dy-namic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset . PNAS 105 ( 48 ), 18848 – 18853 .  

  65. Zeebe , R. E. and Wolf-Gladrow , D . 2001. CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes. Elsevier Oceanography Series, no. 65. Elsevier Sciences By., Amsterdam, the Netherlands.  

comments powered by Disqus