Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India

Authors:

Sheo Prasad Shukla ,

Civil Engineering Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology (Constituent College of Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow), IN
X close

Mukesh Sharma

Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, IN
X close

Abstract

Particulate matter (PM) levels show significant seasonal variability and this can influence the neutralization of rainwater acidity. Months were grouped in two periods: monsoon (July to October) and non-monsoon (November to June) for studying the seasonal variability in PM and rainwater composition. To clearly establish the cause effect relationship of acid rain neutralization, a two tier model was proposed involving source apportionment of particulates at two levels: (i) ambient air and (ii) rainwater particulate interaction. For modelling purpose, PM10 (n = 100), soil (n = 4) and rainwater (n = 83) samples were collected at Kanpur, India during 2000–2002. The collected samples were analysed for metals and water soluble ion composition to employ factor analysis for source identification. Knowledge of statistical correlation and chemistry fundamentals were combined to estimate the sources for acid rain neutralization. NH4 + was a dominating ion responsible for neutralizing the acidity of rainwater in monsoon period and Ca2+ was dominating in non-monsoon period. Components of secondary particles (SO4 2− and NO3 ) showed affinity with NH4 +, signifying the major role that ammonia can play if present in excess of stoichiometric requirements.

How to Cite: Shukla, S.P. and Sharma, M., 2010. Neutralization of rainwater acidity at Kanpur, India. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 62(3), pp.172–180. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00454.x
1
Views
  Published on 01 Jan 2010
 Accepted on 4 Mar 2010            Submitted on 12 May 2010

References

  1. Bhatt , V . 2009 . Regional Scale Air Quality Simulation: Development of GIS based Emission Inventory, Application of WRF and CAMx Models . M. Tech. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology , Kanpur .  

  2. Das , R. , Das S. N. and Misra , V. N . 2005 . Chemical composition of rainwater and dustfall at Bhubaneswar in the east coast of India . Atmos. Environ . 39 ( 32 ), 5908 – 5916 .  

  3. Das , S. , Mehta , B. C. , Singh , R. V. and Srivastava , S. K . 1994 . Chemical composition of rainwater over Bhubaneswar, Orissa . Mausam 45 , 255 – 260 .  

  4. Hegg , D. A. and Hobbs , P. V . 1982 . Measurement of sulfate production in natural clouds . Atmos. Environ . 16 ( 11 ), 2663 – 2668 .  

  5. Jain , M. , Kulshrestha , U. C. , Sarkar , A. K. and Parashar , D. C . 2000 . Influence of crustal aerosols on wet deposition at urban and rural sites in India . Atmos. Environ . 34 , 5129 – 5137 .  

  6. Khemani , L. T. , Momin , G. A. , Naik , Medha S. , Rao , P. S. and co-authors. 1985. Trace elements and sea salt aerosols over the sea areas around the Indian sub-continent. Atmos. Environ. 19 ( 2 ), 277 - 284 .  

  7. Khemani , L. T. , Momin , G. A. , Naik , M. S. , Rao , P. S. P. , Safai , P. D. and co-authors. 1987. Influence of alkaline particulates on pH of cloud and acid rainwater in India. Atmos. Environ. 21 , 1137 – 1145.  

  8. Khemani , L. T. , Momin , G. A. , Rao , P. S. R , Safai , P. D. , Singh , G. and co-authors . 1989. Spread of acid rain over India. Atmos. Environ . 23 ( 4 ), 757 – 762.  

  9. Kulshrestha , U. C. , Granat , L. , Engardt , M. and Rodhe , H . 2005 . Review of precipitation monitoring studies in India-a search for regional patterns . Atmos. Environ . 39 , 7403 – 7419 .  

  10. Mouli , P. C. , Mohan , S. V. and Reddy , S. J . 2005 . Rainwater chemistry at a regional representative urban site: influence of terrestrial sources on ionic composition . Atmos. Environ . 39 ( 6 ), 999 – 1008 .  

  11. Norman , M. , Das , S. N. , Pillai , A. G. , Granat , L. and Rodhe , H . 2001 . Influence of air mass trajectories on the chemical composition of precipitation in India . Atmos. Environ . 35 ( 25 ), 4223 – 4235 .  

  12. Parashar , D. C. , Granat , L. , Kulshrestha , U. C. , Pillai , A. G. , Naik , M. S. and co-authors. 1996. Chemical composition of precipitation in India and Nepal-a Preliminary Report on an Indo-Swedish Project on Atmospheric Chemistry. Report CM 90. Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden.  

  13. Richards , L. W. , Anderson , J. A. , Blumenthal , D. L. , McDonald , J. A. , Kok , G. L. and co-authors. 1983. Hydrogen peroxide and sulfur (IV) in Los Angeles cloud water. Atmos. Environ. 17 ( 4 ), 911 – 914.  

  14. Rodhe , H. , Dentener , F. and Schulz , M . 2002 . The global distribution of acidifying wet deposition . Environ. Sci. TechnoL 36 , 4382 – 4388 .  

  15. Satsangi , G. S. , Lakhani , A. , Khare , R , Singh , S. P. , Kumari , K. M. and co-authors. 1998. Composition of rainwater at a semi-arid rural site in India . Atmos. Environ . 32 ( 21 ), 3783-3793 .  

  16. Saxena , A. , Kulshrestha , U. C. , Kumar , N. , Kumari , K. M. and Srivas-tava , S. S . 1996 . Characterization of precipitation at Agra . Atmos. Environ . 30 , 3405 – 3412 .  

  17. Saylor , R. D. , Butt , K. M. and Peters , L. K . 1992 . Chemical characteri-zation of precipitation from a monitoring network in the lower Ohio River Valley . Atmos. Environ . 26A ( 6 ), 1147 – 1156 .  

  18. Seinfeld , J. H. and Pandis , S. N . 1998 . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics From Air Pollution to Climate Change . John Wiley & Sons , New York .  

  19. Sharma , M. , Kishore , S. , Tripathi , S. N. and Behera , S. N . 2007 . Role of atmospheric ammonia in the formation of inorganic secondary particulate matter: a study at Kanpur, India . J. Atmos. Chem . 58 , 1 – 17 .  

  20. Shukla , S. P. and Sharma , M . 2008 . Source apportionment of atmospheric PMio in Kanpur, India. Environ . Eng. Sc i . 25 , 849 – 861 .  

  21. SYSTAT . 2004. SYSTAT Software, Inc. , 501, Canal Boulevard, Suite C, Richmond , CA 94804.  

  22. Thurston , G. D. and Spengler , J. D . 1985 . A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter pollution in metropolitan Boston . Atmos. Environ . 19 , 9 – 25 .  

  23. U.S.E.P.A . 1996. Method 3050B: acid digestion of sediments, sludges, and soils. SW-846. United State Environment Protection Agency.  

  24. U.S.E.P.A . 1999. Compendium of methods for the determination of inorganic compounds in ambient air. Compendium of Method 10-3.2, EPA/625/R-96/010a. United State Environment Protection Agency.  

comments powered by Disqus