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Original Research Papers

Surface–atmosphere interactions over complex urban terrain in Helsinki, Finland

Authors:

Timo Vesala ,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Leena Järvi,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Samuli Launiainen,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Andrei Sogachev,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Üllar Rannik,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Ivan Mammarella,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Erkki Siivola,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Petri Keronen,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Janne Rinne,

Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Anu Riikonen,

Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Eero Nikinmaa

Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, FI
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Abstract

Long-term measurements of fluxes of sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE) and carbon dioxide (Fc) were made from December 2005 to August 2006 over an urban landscape in Helsinki, Finland using the direct micrometeorological eddy covariance technique. Three distinguished sectors of land-use cover (vegetation, roads and buildings) allowed comparisons of fluxes over different urban surfaces. The normalized standard deviation of wind and scalars as a function of atmospheric stability were typical for rough surfaces, as were turbulence spectra and cospectra. Footprint analysis was performed by a boundary-layer one and half-order closure model allowing for discrimination of surface and canopy sinks/sources and complex topography. Fluxes were analysed as average diurnal courses over winter, spring and summer periods. H exceeded LE reaching 300 W m-2 over urban and road surfaces in the summer and it was close to 100 W m-2 in the winter. LE was highest in the summer over vegetation cover attaining 150 W m-2. The emission rate of CO2 was high over road sector [20 μmol (m2s)-1] [Correction added after online publication 16 Oct 2007: 30 μmol changed to 20 μmol] while in the vegetation sector it remained below 5 μmol (m2s)-1 and at summertime reached even −10 μmol (m2s)-1 [Correction added after online publication 16 Oct 2007: wording of sentence altered]. Effluxes from soil measured by chambers were 1-3 μmol (m2s)-1. Fc correlated with traffic density and a background non-vehicle flux was 1 μmol (m2s)-1 [Correction added after online publication 16 Oct 2007: 2 μmol changed to 1 μmol].

How to Cite: Vesala, T., Järvi, L., Launiainen, S., Sogachev, A., Rannik, Ü., Mammarella, I., Siivola, E., Keronen, P., Rinne, J., Riikonen, A. and Nikinmaa, E., 2008. Surface–atmosphere interactions over complex urban terrain in Helsinki, Finland. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 60(2), pp.188–199. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00312.x
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  Published on 01 Jan 2008
 Accepted on 1 Jul 2007            Submitted on 1 Dec 2006

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