Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in Central Europe

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in Central Europe

Authors:

Otto Klemm ,

Bayreuther Institut für Terrestrische Ökosystemforschung (BITÖK), Universität Bayreuth, DE
X close

Thomas Wrzesinsky

Bayreuther Institut für Terrestrische Ökosystemforschung (BITÖK), Universität Bayreuth, DE
X close

Abstract

Fog and precipitation composition and deposition were measured over a 1-yr period. Ion concentrations were higher in fog than in precipitation by factors of between 6 and 18. The causes of these differences were less dilution of fog water due to non-availability of condensable water vapour, and more efficient transfer of surface emissions to fog water as compared to rain water or snow. Fogwater and dissolved ions depositions were measured with eddy covariance in combination with a bulk fogwater collector. Annual fogwater deposition was 9.4% that of precipitation. The annual deposition of ions through fog was of the same order as that for precipitation. Ammonium, representing local emission sources, had 46% more annual deposition through fog than through precipitation. The fog droplet number and mass size distributions are reported. Fog droplets of 15 μm diameter contribute most to the deposition flux. The variability of processes and parameters contributing to deposition of ions through fog (ion concentrations in fog water, liquid water content in air, fog duration and turbulence) is high.

How to Cite: Klemm, O. and Wrzesinsky, T., 2007. Fog deposition fluxes of water and ions to a mountainous site in Central Europe. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(4), pp.705–714. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00287.x
2
Views
1
Downloads
  Published on 01 Jan 2007
 Accepted on 2 Apr 2007            Submitted on 13 Jun 2006

Reference

  1. Ali , K. , Momin , G. A. , Tiwari , S. , Safai , P. D. , Chate , D. M. and co-authors. 2004. Fog and precipitation at Dehli, Noth India. Atmos. Environ . 38 , 4215 – 4222 .  

  2. Beiderwieden , E. , Wrzesinsky , T. and Klemm , O . 2005 . Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera . HydroL Earth SysL Sci . 9 , 185 – 191 .  

  3. Beswick , K. M. , Hargreaves , K. , Gallagher , M. W. , Choularton , T. W. and Fowler , D . 1991 . Size-resolved measurements of cloud droplet deposition velocity to a forest canopy using an eddy correlation technique . Quart. J. R. MeteoroL Soc . 117 , 623 – 645 .  

  4. Burkard , R. , Eugster , W. , Wrzesinsky , T. and Klemm , O . 2002 . Vertical divergences of fogwater fluxes above a spruce forest . Atmos. Res . 64 , 133 – 145 .  

  5. Daube , B. C. , Flagan , R. C. and Hoffmann , M. R . 1987 . Active Cloud-water Collector . United States Patent No . 4697462 .  

  6. Davidson , C. I. and Friedlander , S. K . 1978 . Filtration model for aerosol dry deposition-application to trace-metal deposition from atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res . 83 , 2343 – 2352 .  

  7. Demoz , B. B. , Collett, J. L. and Daube, B. C. 1996. On the Caltech active strand cloudwater collectors. Atmos. Res . 41 , 47 – 62 .  

  8. Elias , V. , Tesar , M. and Buchtele, J. 1995. Occult precipitation: sampling, analysis and process modeling in the Sumava Mts. (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany). J. Hydrol. 166 , 409 – 420 .  

  9. Fowler , D. , Morse , A. P. , Gallagher , M. and Choularton , T . 1990 . Measurements of cloud water deposition on vegetation using a lysimeter and a flux gradient technique . Tellus 30 , 285 – 293 .  

  10. Gallagher , M. W. , Beswick , K. and Choularton , T. W . 1992 . Measurements and modelling of cloudwater deposition to moorland and forests . Environ. Pollut . 75 , 97 – 107 .  

  11. Herckes , R , Mirabel , P. and Wortham , H . 2002 . Cloud water deposition at a high-elevation site in the Vosges Mountains (France) . Sci. Total Environ . 296 , 59 – 75 .  

  12. Igawa , M. , Tsutsumi , Y. , Mori , T. and Okochi , H . 1998 . Fogwater chemistry at a mountainside forest and the estimation of the air pollutant deposition via fog droplets on the atmospheric quality at the mountainbase . Environ. Sci. Technol . 32 , 1566 – 1572 .  

  13. Klemm , O. , Held , A. , Forkel , R. , Gasche , R. , Kanter , H.-J. and co-authors. 2006. Experiments on forest/atmosphere exchange: climatology and fluxes during two summer campaigns in NE Bavaria. Atmos. Environ . 40, S3-S20 .  

  14. Klemm , O. and Lange , H . 1999 . Trends of Air Pollution in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains, Bavaria . Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res . 6 , 193 – 199 .  

  15. Klein , H. , Wind , P. and van Loon , M . 2005 . EMEP/MSC-W Transboundary air pollution by main pollutants (S, N, 03) and PM, Germany. http://www.emep.int/publ/reports/2005/Country_Reports/ report_DE.pd f  

  16. Klemm , O. , Wrzesinsky , T. and Scheer , C . 2005 . Fog water flux at a canopy top: Direct measurement versus one-dimensional model . Atmos. Environ . 39 , 5375 – 5386 .  

  17. Kowalski , A. S. and Vong , R . J. 1999. Near-surface fluxes of cloud water evolve vertically. Q.J.R. MeteoroL Soc . 125, 2663-268 4 .  

  18. Kulshrestha , M. J. , Selcar , R. , Krishna , D. , Hazarilca , A. K. , Dey , N. C. and co-authors. 2005. Deposition fluxes of chemical components of fog water at a rural site in north-east India. Tellus 57B, 436 – 439 .  

  19. Lange , C. A. , Matschullat , J. , Zimmermann , F. , Stertig , G. and Wienhaus , O . 2003 . Fog chemistry and chemical composition of fog water-a relevant contribution to atmospheric deposition in the eastern Erzgebirge, Germany . Atmos. Environ . 37 , 3731 – 3739 .  

  20. Lövblad , G. , Tarrasón , L. , Torseth , K. and Dutchak , S. (Eds.) 2004 . EMEP Assessment Part lEuropean Perspective . http : //www.emep.int/ index_assessment.html  

  21. Lovett , G. M . 1984 . Rates and mechanisms of cloud water deposition to a subalpine Balsam Fir forest . Atmos. Environ . 18 , 361 – 371 .  

  22. Marloth , H . 1906 . i.iTher Wassermengen welche Sträucher und Bäume aus treibendem Nebel und Wolken auffangen . Meteorologische Zeitschrift 23 , 547 – 553 .  

  23. Matzner , E. ( Ed.) 2004. Temperate Forest Ecosystem Functioning in a Changing Environment-Watershed Studies in Germany. Ecological Studies Vol. 172 , Springer, Berlin .  

  24. Moore , K. E , Sherman , D. E. , Reilly, J. E., Collett, J. L., 2004. Drop size-dependent chemical composition in clouds and fogs. Part I. Observations. Atmos. Environ. 38 , 1389 – 1402 .  

  25. Pahl , S . 1996 . Feuchte Deposition auf Nadelwälder in den Hochlagen der Mittelgebirge . Berichte des DeutschenWetterdienstes 198, 137 pp.  

  26. Pahl , S. , Winkler , R , Schneider , T. , Arends , B. , Schell , D. and co-authors. 1994. Deposition of trace substances via cloud interception on a coniferous forest at Kleiner Feldberg . J. Atmos. Chem . 19 , 231 – 252 .  

  27. Post , D. , Bridgeman , H. A. and Ayers , G. P . 1991 . Fog and rainwater composition in rural SE Australia . J. Atmos. Chem . 13 , 83 – 95 .  

  28. Rogora , M. , Mosello , R. , Arisci , S. , Brizzio , M. C. , Barbieri , A. and co-authors. 2006. An overview of atmospheric deposition chemistry over the Alps: present status and long-term trends. Hydrobiologia 562 , 17 – 40 .  

  29. Schemenauer , R. S. , Banic , C. M. and Urquizo , N . 1995 . High-elevation fog and precipitation chemistry in Southern Quebec, Canada . Atmos. Environ . 29 , 2235 – 2252 .  

  30. Stull , R. B . 1988 . An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology . Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 666 pp.  

  31. Thalmann , E. , Burkard , R. , Wrzesinsky , T. , Eugster , W. and Klemm , O . 2002 . Ion fluxes from fog and rain to an agricultural and a forest ecosystem in Europe . Atmos. Res . 64 , 147 – 158 .  

  32. Trautner , F. and Eiden , R . 1988 . A measuring device to quantify deposition of fog water and ionic input by fog on small spruce trees . Trees 2 , 92 – 95 .  

  33. Dollard , G. J. , Unsworth , M. H. and Harve , M. J . 1983 . Pollutant transfer in upland regions by occult precipitation . Nature 302 , 241 – 243 .  

  34. Umlauf , G. and McLachlan , M. S . 1994 . Deposition of semivolatile organic compounds to spruce needles . Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res . 1 , 146 – 150 .  

  35. Umweltbundesamt (Ed .) 2006 . Publilcationen- Aktuelle Berichte und Inventare . http : //www.umweltbundesamt.de/emissionen/publilcationen. htm  

  36. Vermeulen , A. T. , Wyers , G. P. , Romer , F. G. , Van Leeuwen , N. F. M. , Draaijers , G. P. J. and co-authors. 1997. Fog deposition on a coniferous forest in The Netherlands. Atmos. Environ . 31 , 375 – 386 .  

  37. Vong , R. J. and Kowalski , A. S . 1995 . Eddy correlation measurements of size-dependent cloud droplet turbulent fluxes to complex terrain . Tellus 47B , 331 – 52 .  

  38. Wrzesinsky , T. and Klemm , O . 2000 . Summertime fog chemistry at a mountainous site in central Europe . Atmos. Environ . 34 , 1487 – 1496 .  

  39. Zimmermann , L. and Zimmermann , F . 2002 . Fog Deposition to Norway Spruce Stands at high elevation sites in the Eastern Erzgebirge . J. HydroL 256 , 166 – 175 .  

comments powered by Disqus