Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Continuous measurements of aerosol properties at the Baltic Sea

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Continuous measurements of aerosol properties at the Baltic Sea

Authors:

C. Engle,

Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate and Global Change, FI
X close

H. Lihavainen ,

Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate and Global Change, FI
X close

M. Komppula,

Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate and Global Change, FI
X close

V.-M. Kerminen,

Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate and Global Change, FI
X close

M. Kulmala,

University of Helsinki, Department of Atmospheric Physics, FI
X close

Y. Viisanen

Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate and Global Change, FI
X close

Abstract

Thirty months (March 2003–October 2005) of aerosol size distributions, trace gas and meteorological parameter measurements have been analysed at a background station in Baltic Sea. Log-normal modes have been fitted to the size distributions and a source region analysis using 120 h back trajectories has been accomplished. Seasonal and air mass influences have been studied and compared to other measurement sites. Only weak impacts of meteorological conditions have been found. New particle formation events were observed, but less frequently compared to continental sites, which is concluded being related to the lack of precursor gas sources close to the station and a higher condensation sink. The northeast Atlantic was recognized as an important source of particles in the Aitken mode. Especially in spring and summer, probably primary biogenic particles contribute largely to the particle number concentration. Source regions of the submicron aerosol are strongly dependant of the particle size and so is the contribution to the total number or mass concentration. For this reason, a consideration of the total number or mass concentration was identified not being sufficient in order to describe source areas of aerosol particles.

How to Cite: Engle, C., Lihavainen, H., Komppula, M., Kerminen, V.-M., Kulmala, M. and Viisanen, Y., 2007. Continuous measurements of aerosol properties at the Baltic Sea. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(4), pp.728–741. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00285.x
  Published on 01 Jan 2007
 Accepted on 2 Mar 2007            Submitted on 15 Jun 2006

Reference

  1. Aalto , T. , Hataldca , J. , Paatero , J. , Tuovinen , J.-P. , Aurela , M. and co-authors. 2002. Tropspheric carbon dioxide concentrations at a northern boreal site in Finland: basic variations and source areas. Tellus 54B, 110 – 126 .  

  2. Bellouin , N. , Boucher , O. , Haywood , J. and Reddy , M. S . 2005 . Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements . Nature 438 , 1138 – 1141 .  

  3. Birmili , W. , Wiedensohler , A. , Heintzenberg , J. and Lehmann , K . 2001 . Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statitical relations to air masses and meteorology . J. Geophys. Res . 106 , 32,005 – 32,018 .  

  4. Bonn , B. and Moortgat , K . 2003 . Sesquiterpene ozonolysis: Origin of atmospheric new particle formation from biogenic hydrocarbons . Geophys. Res. Lett . 30 , 1585 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2003GL017000 .  

  5. Cavalli , E , Facchini , M. C. , Decesari , S. , Mircea , M. , Emblico , L. and co-authors. 2004. Advances in characterizationn of size-resolved organic matter in marine aerosol over the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res . 109, D24215, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JDO05137 .  

  6. Charron , A. , Coddeville , P. , Sauvage , S. , Galloo , J.-C. and Guillermo , R . 2001 . Possible source areas and influential factors for suphur compounds in Morvan, France . Atmos. Environ . 35 , 1387 – 1393 .  

  7. Chen , Y. and Penner , J. E . 2005 . Uncertainty analysis for estimates of the first indirect aerosol effect . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 5 , 2935 – 2948 .  

  8. Chin , M. , Rood , R. B. , Lin , S.-J. , Muller , J.-F. and Thompson , A. M . 2000 . Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GO-CART: Model description and global properties . J. Geophys. Res . 105 , 24,671 – 24,687 .  

  9. Chung , C. E. , Ramanathan , V. , Kim , D. and Podgorny , I. A . 2005 . Global anthropogenic aerosol forcing derived from satellite and ground-based observations . J. Geophys. Res . 110 , D24207 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006356 .  

  10. Covert , D. S. , Wiedensohler , A. , Aalto , P. , Heintzenberg , J. , McMurry , P. H. and co-authors. 1996. Aerosol number size distributions from 3 to 500 nm diameter in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn. Tellus 48B, 197 – 212 .  

  11. Dal Maso , M. , Kulmala , M. , Riipinen , I. , Wagner , R. , Hussein , T. and co-authors. 2005. Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland. Boreal Environ. Res . 10 , 323 – 336 .  

  12. Finlayson-Pitts , B. J. and Pitts , J. N . 2000 . Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere , Academic Press, New York .  

  13. Geever , M. , O'Dowd , C. D. , van Ekeren , S. , Flanagan , R. , Nilsson , E. D. and co-authors. 2005. Submicron sea spray fluxes. Geophys. Res. Lett . 32, L15810, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL023081 .  

  14. Hari , P. and Kulmala , M . 2005 . Station for measuring ecosystem-atmosphere relations (SMEAR II) . Boreal Environ. Res . 10 , 315 – 322 .  

  15. Hatakka , J. , Aalto , T. , Aaltonen , V , Aurela , M. , Hakola , H. and co-authors. 2003. Overview of the atmospheric research activities and results at Pallas GAW station. Boreal Environ. Res . 8 , 365 – 383 .  

  16. Haywood , J. and Boucher , O . 2000 . Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: a review . Rev. Geophys . 4 , 513 – 543 .  

  17. Heintzenberg , J. , Covert , D. C. and van Dingenen , R . 2000 . Size distribution and chemical composition of marine aerosols: a compilation and review . Tellus 52B , 1104 – 1122 .  

  18. Hoppel , W. A. , Fitzgerald , J. W. and Larson , R. E . 1985 . Aerosol size distributions in air masses advecting off the east of the United States . J. Geophys. Res . 90 , 2365 – 2379 .  

  19. IPCC 2001. Climate Change (2001): The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group Ito the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , (eds. J. T. Houghton , Y. Ding , D. J. Griggs , M. Noguer , P. J. van der Linden , X. Dai , K. Maskell and C.A. Johnson ) , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp.  

  20. Koch , D. , Jacob , D. , Tegen , I. , Rind , D. and Chin , M . 1999 . Tropospheric sulfur simulations and sulphate direct radiative forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model . J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 23,799 – 23,822 .  

  21. Koch , S. , Winterhalter , R. , Uherek , E. , Kolloff , A. , Neeb , P. and Moortgat , K . 2000 . Formation of new particles in the gas-phase ozonolysis of monoterpenes . Atmos. Environ . 34 , 4031 – 4042 .  

  22. Komppula , M. , Lihavainen , H. , Hatalcica , J. , Paatero , J. , Aalto , P. and co-authors. 2003. Observations of new particle formation and size distributions at two different heights and surroundings in subarctic area in northern Finland. J. Geophys. Res . 108, 4295, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002939 .  

  23. Komppula , M. , Dal Maso , M. , Lihavainen , H. , Aalto , P. P. , Kulmala , M. and Viisanen , Y . 2003 . Comparison of new particle formation events at two locations in northern Finland . Boreal Environ. Res . 8 , 395 – 404 .  

  24. Koponen , I. K. , Virlcicula , A. , Hillamo , R. , Kerminen , V.-M. and Kulmala , M . 2002 . Number size distribution and concentrations of marine aerosols: Observations during a cruise between the English Channel and the coast of Antarctica . J. Geophys. Res . 107 , 4753 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002533 .  

  25. Kulmala , M. , Hämeri , K. , Aalto , P. P. , Mäkelä , J. M. , Pirjola , L. and co-authors. 2001. Overview of the international project on biogenic aerosol formation in the boreal forest (BIOFOR). Tellus 53B, 324.-343 .  

  26. Kulmala , M. , Pirjola , L. and Mäkelä , J. M . 2000 . Stable sulphate clusters as a source of new atmospheric particles . Nature 404 , 66 – 69 .  

  27. Kulmala , M. , VehIcamäki , H. , Petäjä , T. , Dal Maso , M. , Lauri , A. and co-authors. 2004. Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations. J. Aerosol Sci . 35 , 143 – 176 .  

  28. Leck , C. , Heintzenberg , J. and Engardt , M . 2002 . A meridional profile of the chemical composition of submicrometre particles over the East Atlantic Ocean: regional and hemispheric variabilities . Tellus 54B , 377 – 394 .  

  29. Lohmann , U. and Feichter , J . 2005 . Global indirect aerosol effects: a review . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 5 , 715 – 737 .  

  30. Mäkelä , J. M. , Koponen , I. K. , Aalto , P. and Kulmala , M . 2000 . One-year data of submicron size modes of tropospheric background aerosol in southern Finland. J. Aerosol Sci . 31 , 595 – 611 .  

  31. Mäkelä , J. M. , Dal Maso , M. , Pirjola , L. , Keronen , P. , Laalcso , L. and co-authors. 2000. Characteristics of the atmospheric particle formation events observed at a boreal forest site in southern Finland. Boreal Environ. Res . 5 , 299 – 313 .  

  32. Martensson , E. M. , Nilsson , E. D. , de Leeuw , G. , Cohen , L. H. and Hansson , H.-C . 2003 . Laboratory simulations and parameterization of the primary marine aerosol production . J. Geophys. Res . 108 , 4297 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002263 .  

  33. Niemi , J. V. , Tervahattu , H. , VehIcamIci , H. , Martilcainen , J. , Laalcso , L. and co-authors. 2005. Characterization of aerosol particle episodes in Finland caused by wildfires in Eastern Europe. Atmos. Chem. Phys . 5, 2299-231 0 .  

  34. Nilsson , E. D. , Paatero , J. and Boy , M . 2001 . Effects of air masses and synoptic weather on aerosol formation in the continental boundary layer . Tellus 53B , 462 – 478 .  

  35. O'Dowd , C. D. , Facchini , M. C. , Cavalli , E , Ceburnis , D. , Mircea , M. and co-authors. 2004. Biogenically driven organic contribution to marine aerosol. Nature 431 , 676 – 680 .  

  36. O'Dowd , C. D. and Smith , M. H . 1993 . Physicochemical properties of aerosols over the northeast Atlantic: Evidence for wind speed related submicron sea salt aerosol production . J. Geophys. Res . 98 , 1137 – 1149 .  

  37. Ramanathan , V , Crutzen , P. J. , Kiehl , J. T. and Rosenfeld , D . 2001 . Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle . Science 294 , 2119 – 2124 .  

  38. Savoie , D. L. , Arimoto , R. , Keene , W. C. , Prospero , J. M. , Duce , R. A. and co-authors. 2002. Marine biogenic and anthropogenic contributions to non-sea-salt sulphate in the marine boundary layer over the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res . 107, 4356, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000970 .  

  39. Scheel , H. E. , Areskoug , H ., Ge113, H., Gomiscek, B., Granby, K. and co-authors. 1997. On the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of lower-troposphere ozone over Europe. J. Atmos. Chem . 28 , 11 – 28 .  

  40. Sciare, J Bardoulci, H. , Moulin, C. and Mihalopoulos, N. 2003. Aerosol sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime. Atmos. Chem. Phys . 3 , 291 – 302 .  

  41. Seibert , P. , Kromp-Kolb , H. , Kasper , A. , Kalina , M. , Puxbaum , H. , and co-authors. 1998. Transport of polluted boundary layer air from the Po valley to High-Alpine sites. Atmos. Environ.t 32, 3953-396 5 .  

  42. Seinfeld , J. H. and Pandis , S. N . 1998 . Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc ., New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore , Toronto .  

  43. Sogacheva , L. , Dal Maso , M. , Kerminen , V.-M. and Kulmala , M . 2005 . Probability of nucleation events and aerosol particle concentration in different air mass types arriving at Hyytiälä, southern Finland, based on back trajectories analysis . Boreal Environ. Res . 10 , 479 – 491 .  

  44. Stohl , A . 1996 . Trajectory statistics - a new method to establish source-receptor relationships of air pollutants and its application to the transport of particulate sulphate in Europe . Atmos. Environ . 30 , 579 – 587 .  

  45. Stohl , A . 1998 . Computation, accuracy and applications of trajectories - a review and bibliography . Atmos. Environ . 32 , 947 – 966 .  

  46. Stohl , A. , Wotawa , G. , Seibert , P. and Kromp-Kolb , H . 1995 . Interpolation errors in wind fields as a function of spatial and temporal resolution and their impact on different types of kinematic trajectories . J. Appl. MeteoroL 34 , 2149 – 2165 .  

  47. Tunved , P. , Hansson , H.-C. , Kulmala , M. , Aalto , P. , Viisanen , Y. , and co-authgors. 2003. One year boundary layer aerosol size distribution data from five nordic background stations. Atmos. Chem. Phys . 3, 2183-220 5 .  

  48. Tunved , P. , Nilsson , E. D. , Hansson , H.-C. , Strom, J., Kulmala and co-authors. 2005. Aerosol characteristics of air masses in northern Europe: Influences of location, transport, sinks, and sources. J. Geophys. Res. 110, D07201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005085 .  

  49. Twomey , S . 1977 . The influence of pollution on the shortwave albedo of clouds. J. Atmos. Sci . 34 , 1149 – 1152 .  

  50. van Dingenen , R. , Raes , F. , Puteaud , J.-P. , Baltensperger , U. , Charron , A. and co-authors. 2004. A European aerosol phenomenology - 1: physical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe. Atmos. Environ . 38 , 2561 – 2577 .  

  51. VehIcamäki , H. , Dal Maso , M. , Hussein , T. , Flanagan , R. , Hyvärinen , A. and co-authors. 2004. Atmospheric particle formation events at Värriii measurement station in Finnish Lapland 1998-2002 . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 4 , 2015– 2023 .  

  52. Virkkula , A. , Hillamo , R. E. , Kerminen , V.-M. and Stohl , A . 1997 . The influence of Kola Peninsula, continental European and marine sources on the number concentrations and scattering coefficients of the atmospheric aerosol in Finnish Lapland . Boreal Environ. Res . 2 , 317 – 336 .  

  53. Weingartner , E. , Nyeki , S. and Baltensperger , U . 1999 . Seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol size distributions ( 10 D. J. Geophys. Res . 104 , 26,809 – 26,820 .  

comments powered by Disqus