Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Assessment of the status of biogenic organic emissions and impacts on air quality in souther...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Assessment of the status of biogenic organic emissions and impacts on air quality in southern Africa

Authors:

M. Sowden ,

CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P O Box 17001, Congella, 4013, ZA
X close

M. Zunckel,

CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P O Box 17001, Congella, 4013, ZA
X close

A. M. Van Tienhoven

CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P O Box 17001, Congella, 4013, ZA
X close

Abstract

Air quality management in South Africa has traditionally focused on industrial, vehicular and domestic coal burning as emission sources of air pollution. Only recently through, research initiatives such as Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative in 2000 (SAFARI 2000) and the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment Project, have the importance of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions been recognized in regional atmospheric chemistry and composition, particularly relating to surface ozone formation. These projects have identified significant gaps in the understanding of BVOC emissions in southern Africa.

BVOC emissions are relatively well understood for southern African savanna and woodland plant species and landscapes. Considering that the region is home to more than 20 000 plant species, the most significant gap in the understanding of BVOC emissions is the acute lack of plant specific emission information. Equally important is an understanding of the unique local factors that control BVOC emissions.

A project has been launched in South Africa to develop capacity and technologies to address the BVOC knowledge gaps. It focuses on measurement and modelling and aims to develop a cadre of skilled scientists in BVOC sampling techniques using leaf and branch enclosures, relaxed eddy accumulation and lidar techniques in conjunction with development and application of photochemical modelling.

How to Cite: Sowden, M., Zunckel, M. and Van Tienhoven, A.M., 2007. Assessment of the status of biogenic organic emissions and impacts on air quality in southern Africa. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(3), pp.535–541. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00276.x
  Published on 01 Jan 2007
 Accepted on 16 Jan 2007            Submitted on 29 Apr 2006

References

  1. Annegarn , H. and Turner , C . 1996. Air pollution and its impacts on the South African Highveld; Gaseous Pollutants., chapter 6, pages 25-34. Environmental Scientific Association, Cleveland, U.S.A.  

  2. Annegarn , H . 2002 . Southern Africa's ecosystem in a test-tube; a per-spective on the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) . South Afr J. Sc i . 98 , 111 – 113 .  

  3. Atkinson , R. and Arey , J . 2003. Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of bio-genic volatile organic compounds: a review. Atmos. Environ. 37(Sup-plement 2), 197 – 219.  

  4. Blignaut , J . 2002. The externality cost of coal combustion in South Africa. In Forum for Economic and Environment. Bridging the Eco-nomics/Environment divide conference, pages 71-86. ISBN 1-86854-437-0.  

  5. Blum , U. , Shafer , S. and Lehman , M . 1999 . Evidence for Inhibitory Al-lelopathic Interactions Involving Phenolic Acids in Field Soils: Con-cepts vs. an Experimental Model . Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 18 ( 5 ), 673 – 693 .  

  6. Brunke , E. and Scheel 1998 . Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, chapter Atmospheric Ozone, pages 331-334 . L'Aquila , Italy .  

  7. Cairncross , E . 2003 . Methodology for developing an air pollution index (API) for South Africa . Clean Air Journal 6 ( 14 ), 19 – 29 .  

  8. Carter , W. , Pierce, J., Luo, D;. and Mallcina I. 1995. Environmental chamber study of maximum incremental reactivities of volatile organic compounds . Atmos. Environ . 6 ( 14 ), 2499-2511 .  

  9. Chang , K. , Chen , T. and Huang , H . 2005 . Estimation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in subtropical island-Taiwan . Science of The Total Environment 346 ( 1-3 ), 184 – 199 .  

  10. Diab , R . 2004 . Tropospheric ozone climatology over Irene; South Africa from 1990-1994 and 1998-2001 . Geophys. Res . 109 , D20301 .  

  11. Emberson , L . 2001 . Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries . Water Air and Soil Pollution 130 ( 1-4 ), 107 – 118 .  

  12. Fall , R. , Thomas , K. , Alfons , J. and Werner , L . 2001 . Biogenic C5 VOCs: release from leaves after freeze-thaw wounding and occurrence in air at a high mountain observatory . Atmos. Environ . 35 ( 22 ), 3905 – 3916 .  

  13. Germishuizen , G. and Meyer , N . 2003. Plants of southern Africa : an an-notated checklist. Strelitzia 14. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria. South Africa.  

  14. Greenberg , J. P. , Guenther , A. , Harley , P. , Otter , L. , Veenendaal , E. M. , Hewitt , C. N. , James , A. E. and Owen , S. M. 2003. Eddy flux and leaf-level measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from mopane woodland of Botswana. J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( D13 ), 8466.  

  15. Guenther , A. , Zimmerman , P. and Wildermuth , M . 1994 . Natural volatile organic compound emission rate estimates for U.S. woodland land-scapes . Atmos. Environ . 28 ( 6 ), 1197 – 1210 .  

  16. Guenther , A. , Otter , L. , Zimmerman , P. , Greenberg , J. , Scholes , R. and Scholes , M. 1996. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from southern African savannas. J. Geophys. Res . 101 ( D20 ), 25859 – 25865.  

  17. Guenther , A. , Geron , C. , Pierce , T. , Lamb , B. , Harley , P. and Fall , R . 2000 . Natural emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen from North America . Atmos. Environ . 34 ( 12-14 ), 2205 – 2230 .  

  18. Harley , R , Otter , L. , Guenther , A. and Greenberg , J . 2003 . Micromete-orological and leaf-level measurements of isoprene emissions from a southern African savanna . J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( D13 ), 8468 .  

  19. Isebrands , J. , Guenther , A. , Harley , P. , Helmig , D. , Klinger , L. , Vierling , L. , Zimmerman , P. and Geron , C . 1999 . Volatile organic compound emission rates from mixed deciduous and coniferous forests in North-ern Wisconsin, USA . Atmos. Environ . 33 ( 16 ), 2527 – 2536 .  

  20. Jenlcin , M. and Clemitshaw , K . 2000 . Ozone and other secondary pho-tochemical pollutants: chemical processes governing their forma-tion in the planetary boundary layer . Atmos. Environ . 34 ( 16 ), 2499 – 2527 .  

  21. Jonnalagadda , S. , Bwila , J. and Kosmus , W . 2001 . Surface ozone concen-trations in Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe . Atmos. Environ . 35 ( 25 ), 4341 – 4346 .  

  22. Karlik , J. , McKay , A. , Welch , J. and Winer , A . 2002 . A survey of Califor-nia plant species with a portable VOC analyzer for biogenic emission inventory development . Atmos. Environ . 36 ( 33 ), 5221 – 5233 .  

  23. Karlik , J. , Jae Chung , Y. and Winer , A . 2003 . Biogenic emission inven-tory development: field assessment of the GAP vegetation database in California . Physics and Chemistry of the Earth , Parts A/13/C 28 ( 8 ), 315 – 325 .  

  24. Lee , E. , Tingey , D. and Hogsett , W . 1988 . Evaluation of ozone exposure indices in exposure-response modeling . Environ. Pollut . 53 ( 1-4 ), 43 – 62 .  

  25. Lioy , P. , Spektor , D. , Thurston , G. , Citalc , K. , Lippmann , M. , Bock , N. , Speizer , F. and Hayes , C . 1987 . The design considerations for ozone and acid aerosol exposure and health investigations: The fairview lake summer camp - Photochemical smog case study . Environment Inter-national 13 ( 3 ), 271 – 283 .  

  26. Otter , L. , A. , Guenther , Wiedinmyer , C. , Fleming , G. , Harley , P. and Greenberg , J . 2003 . Spatial and temporal variations in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions for Africa south of the equator . J. Geo-phys. Res . 108 ( D13 ), 8505 .  

  27. Otter , L. , Guenther , A. and Greenberg , J . 2002. Seasonal and spatial variations in biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from southern African savannas and woodlands. Atmos. Environ. 36 ( 26 ), 4265-4275. SAWB 1988. South African Weather Bureau, Dept of Environment Af-fairs, Climate of South Africa. Climate Statistics up to 1984. WB40. ISBN: 0621098647. SA Goverment Printer, 2nd edition.  

  28. Solomon , P. , Cowling , E. , Hidy , G. and Furiness , C . 2000 . Comparison of scientific findings from major ozone field studies in North America and Europe . Atmos. Environ . 34 ( 12-14 ), 1885 – 1920 .  

  29. Spalding-Fecher , R. and Matibe , D. K . 2003 . Electricity and externalities in South Africa . Energy Policy 31 ( 8 ), 721 – 734 .  

  30. Stockwell , W. , Kirchner , F. and Kuhn , F . 1997 . A new mechanism for regional atmospheric modelling . J. geophysics Research 102 , 25847 – 25879 .  

  31. Swap , R. J. , Annegarn , H. J. and Otter , L. B . 2002 . A Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Summary of science plan, South African . J. Sc i . 98 , 119 – 124 .  

  32. van Tienhoven , A. , Otter , L. , Lenlcopane , M. , Venjonolca , K. and Zunckel , M . 2005 . Assessment of ozone impacts on vegetation in southern Africa and directions for future research . South Aft-. J. Sci . 101 , 143 – 148 .  

  33. van Tienhoven , A. , Zunckel , M. , Emberson , L. , Koosailee , A. and Otter , L . 2006. Preliminary assessment of risk of ozone impacts to maize (zea mays) in southern Africa. Environ. Pollut. 140(2D, 220 – 230.  

  34. Vizuete , W. , Junquera , V. , Donald-Buller , E. , McGaughey , G. , Yarwood , G. and Allen , D . 2002 . Effects of temperature and land use on predic-tions of biogenic emissions in Eastern Texas, USA . Atmos. Environ . 36 ( 20 ), 3321 – 3337 .  

  35. Yarwood , G. , Wilson , G. and Guenther , A . 2002 . Globeis v3.1. Computer program , Environ Inc , NCAR , http://www.globeis.com/ .  

  36. Zunckel , M. , Cairncross , E. , Marx , E. , Singh , V. and Reddy , V . 2004a . A dynamic air pollution prediction system for Cape Town, South Africa, volume Air Pollution XII of 12th International Conference on Mod-elling, pages 275-284 . Wit Press, Southampton, Rhodes , Greece .  

  37. Zunckel , M. , Venjonoka , K. , Pienaar , J. , Brunke , E. , Pretorius, 0., Koosialee, A., Raghunandan, A. and van Tienhoven, A. 2004b. Sur-face ozone over southern Africa: synthesis of monitoring results dur-ing the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact Assessment project . Atmos. Environ . 38 ( 36 ), 6139-6147 .  

  38. Zunckel , M. , A. Koosailee , Yarwood , G. , Maure , G. , Venjonolca , K. , Tienhoven , A. and Otter , L . 2006a . Modelled Surface Ozone Over Southern Africa During the Cross Border Air Pollution Impact As-sessment Project . Environmental Modelling and Software 21 ( 2006 ), 911 – 924 .  

  39. Zunckel , M. , Sowden , M. , Cairncross , U. , Marx , E. , Reddy , V. and Hieticamp , S . 2006b . An Overview of the Dynamic Air Pollution Pre-diction system (DAPPS) . Clean Air Journal 15 ( 1 ), 14 – 18 .  

comments powered by Disqus