Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Correlations between concentrations of acids and oxygen isotope ratios in polar surface snow

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Correlations between concentrations of acids and oxygen isotope ratios in polar surface snow

Authors:

Ulf Jonsell ,

Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, SE
X close

Margareta E. Hansson,

Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, SE
X close

Carl-Magnus Mörth

Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, SE
X close

Abstract

Investigation of centimeter-scale snow surface chemistry has been carried out at two polar sites with different site characteristics–in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and on the Greenland ice sheet, respectively. Large variations in both impurity content and stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) were found on the submeter scale. δ18O and the concentration of nitrate correlated at both sites (r = 0.81 and 0.82, respectively). At the Antarctic site, δ18O is also correlated to concentrations of methanesulphonate (r = 0.84) and sulphate (r = 0.83) while no such correlation exists at the Greenland site. Instead, a strong anticorrelation (r = –0.85) between sulphate and methanesulphonate is found among the samples from the Greenland site. The ions correlating with δ18O at the two sites were probably deposited as acids. Our tentative explanation is that local redeposition of water vapour enriching the snow surface with the lighter isotopes is associated with simultaneous enhanced scavenging of the acids. The responsible process thereby significantly alters the chemical signals of the snow surface.

How to Cite: Jonsell, U., Hansson, M.E. and Mörth, C.-M., 2007. Correlations between concentrations of acids and oxygen isotope ratios in polar surface snow. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(2), pp.326–335. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00272.x
  Published on 01 Jan 2007
 Accepted on 23 Jan 2007            Submitted on 10 Mar 2006

References

  1. Albert , M. R . 2002 . Effects of snow and firn ventilation on sublimation rates . Ann. Glaciol . 35 , 52 – 56 .  

  2. Cunningham , J. and Waddington , E. D . 1993 . Air flow and dry deposition of non-sea-salt sulfate in polar firn: Paleoclimatic implications . Atmos. Environ . 27 ( 17-18 ), 2943 – 2956 .  

  3. Dansgaard , W . 1961 . The isotopic composition of natural waters with special reference to the Greenland ice cap . Medd. om Grönland . 165 ( 2 ), 1 – 120 .  

  4. Dansgaard , W . 1964 . Stable isotopes in precipitation . Tellus 16 , 436 - 468 .  

  5. Davis , D. , Chen , G. , Kasibhatla , P. , Jefferson , A. , Tanner , D. and co-authors. 1998. DMS oxidation in the Antarctic marine bound-ary layer: comparison of model simulations and field observations of DMS, DMSO, DMS02, H2504(g), MSA(g), and MSA(p) . J. Geo-phys. Res.- Atmos . 103 ( 1 ), 1657-1678 .  

  6. Delmas , R. J. , Wagnon , P. , Goto , A. K. , Kamiyama , K. and Watanabe, 0. 2003. Evidence for the loss of snow-deposited MSA to the interstitial gaseous phase in central Antarctic firn. Tellus 55B, 71 – 79.  

  7. Dibb , J. E. , Talbot , R. W. and Bergin , M. H . 1994 . Soluble acidic species in air and snow at Summit, Greenland . Geophys. Res. Lett . 21 ( 15 ), 1627 – 1630 .  

  8. Dibb , J. E. , Talbot , R. W. , Munger , J. W. , Jacob , D. J. and Song , M. F . 1998 . Air-snow exchange of HNO3 and NOy at Summit, Greenland . J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos . 103 ( 3 ), 3475 – 3486 .  

  9. Dixon , R. W. , Mosimann , L. , Oberholzer , B. , Staehelin , J. , Waldvogel , A. and co-authors. 1995. The effect of riming on the ion concentrations of winter precipitation. 1. A quantitative analysis of field measurements. J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 100 ( 6 ), 11,517 – 11,527.  

  10. Epstein , S. , Sharp , R. P. and Gow , A. J . 1965 . Six-year record of oxygen and hydrogen isotope variation in South Pole firn . J. Geophys. Res . 70 , 1809 – 1814 .  

  11. Friedman , I. , Benson , C. S. and Gleason , J . 1991. Isotopic changes during snow metamorphism. In: Stable isotope geochemistry; a tribute to Samuel Epstein. (eds H. P. Taylor Jr., J. R. O'Neil and I. R. Kaplan). Special Publication—Geochemical Society, San Antonio, 211 – 221.  

  12. Ginot , R , Kull , C. , Schwilcowski , M. , Schotterer , U. and Gaggeler , H. W . 2001 . Effects of postdepositional processes on snow composition of a subtropical glacier (Cerro Tapado, Chilean Andes). J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos . D 106 ( 23 ), 32375 – 32386 .  

  13. Goto-Azuma , K. , Koerner , R. M. , Nakawo , M. and Kudo , A . Snow chemistry of Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmare Island, Northwest Territories , Canada. J. Glaciol . 43 ( 144 ), 199 – 206.  

  14. Hall , J. S. and Wolff , E. W . 1998 . Causes of seasonal and daily variations in aerosol sea-salt concentrations at a coastal Antarctic station . Atmos. Environ . 32 ( 21 ), 3669 – 3677 .  

  15. Holmlund , P. , Gjerde , K. , Gundestrup , N. , Hansson , M. , Isaksson , E. and co-authors. 2000. Spatial gradients in snow layering and 10 m temperatures at two EPICA-Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) pre-site-survey drill sites. Ann. Glaciol. 30, 13 – 19.  

  16. Iizulca , Y. , Fujii , Y. , Hirasawa , N. , Suzuki , T. , Motoyama , H. and co-authors. 2004.5042— minimum in summer snow layer at Dome Fuji, Antarctica, and the probable mechanism. J Geophys. Res. -Atmos, 109, D04307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004138 .  

  17. Iribarne , J. V. and Barrie , L. A . 1995 . The Oxidation of S(IV) During Riming by Cloud Droplets . J. Atmos. Chem . 21 ( 2 ), 97 – 114 .  

  18. Jaffrezo , J. L. , Davidson , C. I. , Legrand , M. and Dibb , J. E . 1994 . Sulfate and MSA in the air and snow on the Greenland Ice Sheet . J. Geophys. Res. -Atmos . 99 ( 1 ), 1241 – 1253 .  

  19. Jefferson , A. , Tanner , D. J. , Eisele , F. L. and Berresheim , H . 1998 . Sources and sinks of H2 SO4 in the remote Antarctic marine boundary layer . J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos . 103 ( D1 ), 1639 – 1645 .  

  20. Johnsen , S. J . 1977 . Stable isotope homogenisation of polar firn and ice . Isotopes and impurities in snow and ice. IAHS Publ . 118 , 210 – 219 .  

  21. Johnsen , S. J. , Dahl , J. D. , Dansgaard , W. and Gundestrup , N . 1995 . Greenland palaeotemperatures derived from GRIP bore hole temper-ature and ice core isotope profiles . Tellus 47B , 624 – 629 .  

  22. Jonsell , U. , Hansson , M. E. , Mörth , C. M. and Torssander , P . 2005 . Sulfur isotopic signals in two shallow ice cores from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica . Tellus 57B , 341 – 350 .  

  23. Jourdain , B. and Legrand , M . 2001 . Seasonal variations of atmospheric dimethylsulfide, dimethylsulfoxide, sulfur dioxide, methanesulfonate, and non-sea-salt sulfate aerosols at Dumont d'Urville (coastal Antarc-tica) (December 1998 to July 1999) . J Geophys. Res.-Atmos . 106 ( 13 ), 14391 – 14408 .  

  24. Jourdain , B. and Legrand , M . 2002 . Year-round records of bulk and size-segregated aerosol composition and HC1 and HNO3 levels in the Dumont d'Urville (coastal Antarctica) atmosphere: Implications for sea-salt aerosol fractionation in the winter and summer . J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos . 107 ( D22 ), 4645 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JDO02471 .  

  25. Kärkds , E. , Teinila , K. , Virkkula , A. and Aurela , M . 2005 . Spatial varia-tions of surface snow chemistry during two austral summers in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica . Atmos. Environ . 39 ( 8 ), 1405 – 1416 .  

  26. Kerminen , V. M. , Teinila , K. and Hillamo , R . 2000 . Chemistry of sea-salt particles in the summer Antarctic atmosphere . Atmos. Environ . 34 ( 17 ), 2817 – 2825 .  

  27. Kreutz , K. J. , Mayewski , P. A. , Twickler , M. S. , Whitlow , S. I. , White , J. W. C. and co-authors. 1999. Seasonal variations of glaciochemi-cal, isotopic and stratigraphic properties in Siple Dome (Antarctica) surface snow. Ann. Glaciol. 29, 38 – 44.  

  28. Lamb , D. and Chen , J.-P . 1990 . A modeling study of the effects of ice-phase microphysical processes on trace chemical removal efficiencies . Atmos. Res . 25 ( 1-3 ), 31 – 51 .  

  29. Legrand , M. R. and Delmas , R. J . 1988 . Formation of HC1 in the Antarctic Atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos . 93 ( 6 ), 7153 – 7168 .  

  30. Legrand , M. R. and Mayewski , P . 1997 . Claciochemistry of polar ice cores. A review . Rev. Geophys . 35 ( 3 ), 219 – 243  

  31. Minilcin , A. , Wagenbach , D. , Graf , W. and Kipfstuhl , J . 1994 . Spatial and seasonal variations of the snow chemistry at the central Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica . Ann. Glaciol . 20 , 283 – 290 .  

  32. Moser , H. and Stichler , W . 1980 . Environmental isotopes in ice and snow . In: Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. (eds P. Fritz and J. C. Fontes). Elsevier , New York , 141 – 178 .  

  33. Neumann , T. A. , Waddington , E. D. , Steig , E. J. and Grootes , P.M . 2005 . Non-climate influences on stable isotopes at Taylor Mouth, Antarctica . J. Glaciol . 51 ( 173 ), 248 – 258 .  

  34. North Greenland Ice Core Project members . 2004 . High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last in-terglacial period . Nature 431 , 147 – 151 .  

  35. Pomeroy , J. W. and Jones , H. G . 1996. Wind-blown-snow: Sublimation and changes to Polar snow. In: Chemical exchange between the atmo-sphere and polar snow. (eds E. W. Wolff and R. C. Bales). NATO ASI Series I Global environmental change, v. 43, Springer-Verlag, Berlin & Heidelberg, 453 – 490.  

  36. Putnins , P . 1970 . The Climate of Greenland . In: Climates of the Polar Regions (ed S. Orvig). World survey of climatology. Elsevier , New York , 3 – 113 .  

  37. Puxbaum , H. and Tscherwenka , W . 1998 . Relationships of major ions in snow fall and rime at Sonnblick Observatory (SBO, 3106 m) and im-plications for scavenging processes in mixed clouds . Atmos. Environ . 32 ( 23 ), 4011 – 4020 .  

  38. Reijmer , C. H . 2001 . Antarctic meteorology. A study with automatic weather stations. Doctoral Thesis, University of Utrecht, 115. Reijmer, C. H. and Van Den Broeke, M. R. 2003. Temporal and spa-tial variability of the surface mass balance in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as derived from automatic weather stations . J. Glaciol . 49 ( 167 ), 512 – 520 .  

  39. Riithlisberger , R. , Hutterli , M. A. , Sommer , S. , Wolff , E. W. and Mulvaney , R . 2000 . Factors controlling nitrate in ice cores: Evidence from the Dome C deep ice core . J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos . 105 ( 16 ), 20565 – 20572 .  

  40. Riithlisberger , R. , Hutterli , M. A. , Wolff , E. W. , Mulvaney , R. , Fischer , H. and co-authors. 2002. Nitrate in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores: A detailed description of post-depositional processes. Ann. Glaciol. 35, 209 – 216.  

  41. Riithlisberger , R. , Mulvaney , R. , Wolff , E. W. , Hutterli , M. A. , Bigler , M. and co-authors. 2003. Limited dechlorination of sea-salt aerosols during the last glacial period: Evidence from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (ERICA) Dome C ice core. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. 108(16), 4526, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JDO03604 .  

  42. Saltzman , E. S . 1995 . Ocean/Atmosphere cycling of dimethylsulfide . In: Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles (ed R. J. Delmas). Springer-Verlag , New York , 65 – 89 .  

  43. Satake , H. and Kawada , K . 1997 . The quantitative evaluation of subli-mation and the estimation of original hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of a firn core at East Queen Maud Land, Antarctica . B. Glaciol. Res . 15 , 93 – 97 .  

  44. Sommerfeld , R. A. , Judy , C. and Friedman , I . 1991. Isotopic changes during the formation of depth hoar in experimental snow packs. In: Stable isotope geochemistry; a tribute to Samuel Ep-stein (eds H. P. Taylor Jr., J. R. O'Neil and I. R. Kaplan). Special Publication - Geochemical Society, San Antonio, 205 – 209.  

  45. Steffen , K. and Box , J . 2001 . Surface climatology of the Greenland ice sheet: Greenland climate network 1995-1999 . J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos . 106 ( 24 ), 33951 – 33964 .  

  46. Stenberg , M. , Isalcsson , E. , Hansson , M. , Karlen , W. , Mayewslci , P. A. and co-authors. 1998. Spatial variability of snow chemistry in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol. 27, 378 – 384.  

  47. Udisti , R. , Becagli , S. , Castellano , E. , Traversi , R. , Vermigli , S. and co-authors. 1999. Sea-spray and marine biogenic seasonal contribution to snow composition at Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol. 29, 77 – 83.  

  48. Udisti , R. , Becagli , S. , Benassi , S. , Castellano , E. , Fattori , I. and co-authors. 2004. Atmosphere - snow interaction by comparison between aerosol and the uppermost snow layers composition at Dome C (East Antarctica). Ann. Glaiol. 39, 53 – 61.  

  49. van den Broeke , M. R. , Reijmer , C. H. and Van De Wal , R. S. W . 2004 . A study of the surface mass balance in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, using automatic weather stations . J. Glaciol . 50 ( 171 ), 565 – 582 .  

  50. Wagenbach , D. , Ducroz , F. , Mulvaney , R. , Keck , L. , Minilcin , A. and co-authors. 1998. Sea-salt aerosol in coastal Antarctic regions. J. Geo-phys. Res.-Atmos. 103 ( 9 ), 10961 – 10974.  

  51. Wagnon , P. , Delmas , R. J. and Legrand , M . 1999 . Loss of volatile acid species from upper firn layers at Vostok, Antarctica . J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos . 104 ( 3 ), 3423 – 3431 .  

  52. Weller , R. , Traufetter , F. , Fischer , H. , Oerter , H. , Piel , C. and co-authors. 2004. Postdepositional losses of methane sulfonate, nitrate, and chlo-ride at the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica deep-drilling site in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res.- Atmos. 109 ( 7 ), D07301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004189 .  

  53. Wolff , E. W . 1995. Nitrate in polar ice. In: Ice core studies of global biogeochemical cycles (ed R. J. Delmas), Springer-Verlag, New York, 195 – 224.  

  54. Wolff , E. W. , Hall , J. S. , Mulvaney , R. , Pasteur , E. C. , Wagenback , D. and co-authors. 1998. Relationship between chemistry of air, fresh snow and firn cores for aerosol species in coastal Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos 103 ( 9 ), 11057 – 11070.  

comments powered by Disqus