Start Submission Become a Reviewer

Reading: Interannual variation and trends in air pollution over Europe due to climate variability dur...

Download

A- A+
Alt. Display

Original Research Papers

Interannual variation and trends in air pollution over Europe due to climate variability during 1958–2001 simulated with a regional CTM coupled to the ERA40 reanalysis

Authors:

Camilla Andersson ,

Department of Applied Environmental research, Stockholm University; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE
X close

Joakim Langner,

Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE
X close

Robert Bergström

Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE
X close

Abstract

A three-dimensional Chemistry Transport Model was used to study the meteorologically induced interannual variability and trends in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen as well as concentrations of surface ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM) and its constituents over Europe during 1958–2001. The model was coupled to the meteorological reanalysis ERA40, produced at the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Emissions and boundary conditions of chemical compounds and PM were kept constant at present levels.

The average European interannual variation, due to meteorological variability, ranges from 3% for O3, 5% for NO2, 9% for PM, 6–9% for dry deposition, to about 20% for wet deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. For the period 1979–2001 the trend in ozone, due to climate variability is increasing in central and southwestern Europe and decreasing in northeastern Europe, the trend in NO2 is approximately opposite. The trend in PM is positive in eastern Europe. There are negative trends in wet deposition in southwestern and central Europe and positive trends in dry deposition overall. A bias in ERA40 precipitation could be partly responsible for the trends. The variation and trends need to be considered when interpreting measurements and designing measurement campaigns.

How to Cite: Andersson, C., Langner, J. and Bergström, R., 2007. Interannual variation and trends in air pollution over Europe due to climate variability during 1958–2001 simulated with a regional CTM coupled to the ERA40 reanalysis. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 59(1), pp.77–98. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2006.00231.x
7
Views
1
Downloads
  Published on 01 Jan 2007
 Accepted on 13 Jun 2006            Submitted on 23 Dec 2005

References

  1. Andersson , C. and Largner , J . 2005 . Interannual variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide over Europe during 1958-2003 simulated with a regional CTM . Accepted to the Acid Rain, 2005 , Journal special issue of Focus: Water , Air and Soil Pollution .  

  2. Andersson , E. , Beljaars , A. , Chevallier , E , HOlm , E. , Janiskovd , M. and co-authors. 2005. Assimilation and modelling of the hydrological cy-cle in the ECMWF forecasting system. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 86, 387 – 402.  

  3. Bengtsson , L. , Hagemann , S. and Hodges , K. I . 2004 . Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J . Geophys. Res . 109 ( D11 ), D11111 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004536  

  4. Berge , E . 1993 . Coupling of wet scavenging of sulphur to clouds in a numerical weather prediction model . Tellus 45B , 1 – 22 .  

  5. Bott , A . 1989 . A positive definite advection scheme obtained by non-linear renormalization of advective fluxes. Month . Weath. Re v . 117 , 1006 – 1015 .  

  6. Carter , W. P. L . 1996 . Condensed atmospheric photo oxidation mecha-nisms for isoprene . Atmosph. En v . 30 , 4275 – 4290 .  

  7. Chin , M. , Jacob , D. J. , Gardner , G. M. , Foreman-Fowler , M. S. and Spiro , P. A . 1996. A global three-dimensional model of tropospheric sulphate. J. Geophys. Res . 101 ( D13 ), 18667-18 690.  

  8. Dameris , M. , Grewe , V. , Kohler , R. , Sausen , R. , Brfihl , C. and co-authors. 1998. Impact of aircraft NO emissions on tropospheric and strato-spheric ozone. Part II: 3-D model results . Atmosph. Env ., 3185-319 9 .  

  9. Dana , M. T. and Hales , J. M . 1976 . Statistical aspects of the washout of polydisperse aerosols . Atm. Env . 10 , 45 – 50 .  

  10. De Serves , C . 1994 . Gas phase formaldehyde and peroxide measure-ments in the Arctic atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res . 99(D12), 25 391-25 398 .  

  11. EMEP/CCC , 1999. EMEP measurement data. URL: http://www.emep.int, Jan. and Jul. 2001 (ozone) and Apr. 2003 (other compounds).  

  12. Foltescu , V. L. , Pryor , C. S. and Bennet , C . 2005 . Sea salt generation, dispersion and removal on the regional scale . Atm. En v . 39 , 2123 – 2133 .  

  13. Fusco , A. C. and Logan , J. A . 2003 . Analysis of 1970-1995 trends in tro-pospheric ozone at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes with the GEOS-CHEM model./ . Geophys. Res . 108 ( D15 ), 4449 – 4473 .  

  14. Gidhagen , L. , Johansson , C. , Langner , J. and Foltescu , V. L . 2005 . Urban scale modeling of particle number concentration in Stockholm . Atm. En v . 39 , 1711 – 1725 .  

  15. Gong , S. L. , Barrie , L. A. and Blanchet , J.-P . 1997 . Modeling sea-salt aerosols in the atmosphere. 1. Model development . J. Geophys. Res . 102 ( D3 ), 3805 – 3818 .  

  16. Grermfelt , P. and Hov, 0. 2005. Regional air pollution at a turning point. Ambio 34 ( 1 ), 2 – 10.  

  17. Hagemann , S. , Arpe , K. and Bengtsson , L . 2005. Validation of the hydrological cycle of ERA40, ERA40 Project Report Series, No. 24. European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. http://www.ecmwf@int  

  18. Hjellbrekke , A. G . 2001 . Data report 1999. Acidifying and eutrophying compounds. Part 2: monthly and seasonal summaries. EMEP/CCC-Report 03/2001. Internet URL: http://www.nilu.no, 25 May 2005. Huffman, G. J., Adler, R. E, Arkin, A., Chang, A., Ferraro, R. and co-authors. 1997. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc . 78 , 5 – 20. Jonson, J. E., Simpson, D., Fagerli, H. and Solberg, S. 2006. Can we explain the trends in European ozone levels? Atmos . Chem. and Phys . 6 , 51 – 66 .  

  19. Kanakidou , M. , Singh , H. B. , Valentin , K. M. and Crutzen , P. J . 1991 . A two dimensional study of ethane and propane oxidation in the tropo-sphere . J. Geophys. Res . 96(D8), 15 395-15 413 .  

  20. Koutrakis , P. , Wolfson , J. M. , Spengler , J. D. , Stern , B. and Franklin , C. A . 1989 . Equilibrium size of atmospheric aerosol sulfates as a function of the relative humidity./ . Geophys. Res . 94 , 6442 – 6448 .  

  21. Kovac , N. , 2002. Mandatory data checking for the EMEP assess-ment. Environmental Agency of Slovenia, Monitoring office, air quality section, 2 pp. Internet URL: http://www.nilu.no/projects/ ccc/sitedescriptions/si/index.html, 27 May 2005.  

  22. Kraus , K. B. , Rohrer , E , Grobler , E. S. and Ehhalt , D. H . 1996. The global trorpspheric distribution of NO estimated by a three-dimensional chemical tracer model. J. Geophys. Res . 101 ( D13 ), 18 587-18 604. Milberg, P. 1997. Aspects of the re-analysed climate ECMWF Reanal. Proj. Rep. Ser. 2, 89. European Centre For Medium-Range Weather Forecasting, Geneva.  

  23. Langner , J. , Bergstrom , R. and Pleijel , K . 1998. European scale model-ing of sulphur, oxidized nitrogen and photochemical oxidants. Model  

  24. development and evaluation for the 1994 growing season, SMHE re-port, RMK No. 82, Swedish Met. and Hydrol. Inst., Norrkoping, Swe-den.  

  25. Langner , J. , Bergstrom , R. and Foltescu , V. L . 2005 . Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe . Atm. Env . 39 , 1129 – 1141 .  

  26. Lelieveld , J. and Dentener , E 2000 . What controls tropospheric ozone? . J. Geophys. Res . 105 ( D3 ), 3531 – 3551 .  

  27. Lovblad , G. , Tarrason , L. , Torseth , K. and Dutchak , S. (eds) , 2004 . EMEP Assessment, Part 1, European Perspective, EMEP MSC-W, Oslo, October 2004 . URL: http : //www.emep.int/index_assessment.html  

  28. Moxim , W. J. , Levy , H. and Kasibhatla , P. S . 1996. Simulated global tropospheric PAN: Its transport and impact on NOR. .1. Geophys. Res. 101(D7), 12 621-12 638.  

  29. Martensson , E. M. , Nilsson , E. D. , de L,eeuw, G., Cohen, L. H. and Hansson, H.-C. 2003. Laboratory simulations and parametrization of the primary marine aerosol production. J. Geophys. Res . 108 ( D9 ), https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002263 .  

  30. Monahan , E. C. , Spiel , D. E. and Davidson , K. L . 1986. A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption. In: Oceanic Whitecaps and Their Role in Air-Sea Exchange (eds E. C. Monahan and G. Mac Niocaill). D Reidel, Norwell, MA, pp. 167 – 174.  

  31. Nds , A. , Moldanovd , J. , Lindskog , A. , Bergstrom , R. and Langner , J . 2003. Identification and management of critical environmental im-pacts from air transportation over North Europe EIATNE. URL: http://www.eiatne.se/intemt/F0I-S-1041-SE-EIATNE.pdf  

  32. Peters , W. , Krol , M. , Dentener, E and Lelieveld, J. 2001. Identification of an El Nino-southern Oscillation signal in a multilayer global sim-ulation of tropospheric ozone. J. Geophys. Res . 106 ( D10 ), 10389-10 402.  

  33. Quinn , T. L. and Ondov , J. M . 1998 . Influence of temporal changes in relative humidity on dry deposition velocities and fluxes of aerosol particles bearing trace elements . Atm. Env . 32 , 3467 – 3479 .  

  34. Robertson , L. , Langner , J. and Engardt , M . 1999 . An Eulerian limited-area atmospheric transport model . J. Appl. Met . 38 , 190 – 210 .  

  35. Roemer , M. , Beekman , M. , Bergstrom , R. , Boersen , G. , Feldman , H. , and co-authors. 2003. Ozone trends according to ten disper-sion models, EUROTRAC-2, http://www.mep.tno.nl/eurotrac, click on EUROTRAC-trends.pdf.  

  36. Simmonds , P. , Derwent , R. , Manning , A. and Spain , G . 2004 . Significant growth in surface ozone at Mace Head, Ireland 1987-2003 . Atm. Env . 38 , 4769 – 4778 .  

  37. Simmons , A. J. , Jones , P. D. , da Costa Bechtold , V. , Beljaars , C. M. , Milberg , P. W. and co-authors. 2004. Comparison of trends and low-frequency variability in CRU, ERA40, and NCEP/NCAR analy-ses of surface air temperature. J. Geophys. Res . 109 ( D24 ), D24115, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005306 .  

  38. Simpson , D. , Andersson-Skold , Y. and Jenkin , M. E . 1993. Updating the chemical scheme for the EMEP MSC-W oxidant model: current status, EMEP MSC-W Note 2/93.  

  39. Simpson , D. , Guenther , A. , Hewitt , C. N. and Steinbrecher , R . 1995. Bio-genic emissions in Europe. 1. Estimates and uncertainties. J. Geophys. Res . 100 , 22875 – 22890.  

  40. Siniarovina , U. and Engardt , M . 2005 . High-resolution model simula-tions of anthropogenic sulphate and sulphur dioxide in Southeast Asia . Atm. Env . 39 , 2021 – 2034 .  

  41. Skjelkvale , B. L. , Evans , C. , Larssen , T. , Hindar , A. and Raddum , G. G . 2003 . Recovery from acidification in European surface waters: A review to the future . Ambio 30 ( 3 ), 170 – 175 .  

  42. Solberg , S. , Bergstrom , R. , Langner , J. , Laurila , T. , Sjoberg , K. and co-authors. 2002. Changes in ozone episodes due to emission reduc-tions - A Nordic study. EMEP/CCC-Report 10/2002, Norwegian In-stitute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, No-2027 Kjeller, Norway. URL: http://www.nilu.no/projects/ccc/reports/cccr10-2002.pdf Solberg, S., Bergstrom, R., Langner, J., Laurila, T. and Lindskog, A. 2005a. Changes in Nordic ozone episodes due to European emission reductions in the 1990s. Atm. Env. 39, 179 – 192.  

  43. Solberg , S. , Derwent , R. G. , Hov, 0., Langner, J. and Lindskog, A., 2005b. European abatement of surface ozone in a global perspective. Ambio 34(1), 47 – 53.  

  44. Stoddard , J. L. , Jeffries , D. S. , Lukeswille , A. , Clair , T. A. , Dillon , P. J. and co-authors. 1999. Regional trends in aquatic recovery from acidification in North America and Europe 1980-1995. Nature 40, 575 – 578.  

  45. Svenningsson , B. , Hansson , H.-C. , Wiedensohler , A. , Noone , K. , Ogren , J. and co-authors. 1994. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles and its influence on nucleation scavenging in cloud: experimental results from Keiner Feldberg. J. Atm. Chem. 19, 129 – 152.  

  46. Swietlicki , E. , Zhou , J. , Berg, 0. H., Martinsson, B. G., Frank, G. and co-authors. 1999. A closure study of sub-micrometer aerosol particle hygroscopic behaviour. Atm. Env. 50, 205 – 240.  

  47. Swietlicki , E. , Zhou , J. , Covert , D. S , Hämeri, K., Busch, B. and co-authors. 2000. Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2. Tellus 52B, 201 – 227.  

  48. Tilmes , S. , Brandt , J. , Flatoy , E , Bergstrom , R. , Flemming, J. and co-authors. 2002. Comparison of five Eulerian air pollution forecasting systems for the summer of 1999 using the German ozone monitoring data./. Atm. Chem. 42, 91 – 121.  

  49. Tsyro , S. G . 2005 . To what extent can water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PMio and PM2.5? . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 5 , 515 – 532 .  

  50. Uppala , S. , Milberg , P. , Hernandez , A. , Saarinen , S. , Fiorino , M. and co-authors. 2004. ERA40:ECMWF 45-year reanalysis of the global atmosphere and surface conditions 1957-2002. ECMWF Newsletter 101, 2 – 21.  

  51. Uppala , S. M. , Milberg , P. W. , Simmons , A. J. , Andrae , U. , da Costa Bechtold, V. and co-authors. 2005. The ERA40 re-analysis. Quart. .1. Roy. Met. Soc. 131B, 2961 – 3012.  

  52. van Loon , M. , Roemer , M. G. M. , Builtjes , P. J. H., Bessagnet, B., Rouil, L. and co-authors. 2004. Model inter-comparison. In the framework of the review of the unified EMEP model, TNO-report, TNO-MEP - R 2004/282, 53 pp.  

  53. Vestreng , V . 2003. EMEP/MSC-W Technical report. Review and Revi-sion. Emission data reported to CLRTAP, MSC-W Status Report 2003. EMEP/MSC-W Note 1/2003. ISSN 0804 – 2446.  

  54. Zhang , L. , Gong , S. , Padro , J. and Barrie , L. 2001. A size-segregated particle dry deposition scheme for an atmospheric aerosol module. Atm. Env. 35, 549 – 560.  

comments powered by Disqus